Top 1000 nouns

These lists show you which words are used most often. They give you examples of their correct use in phrases or sentences. Note that some words may be used as noun, verb, adjective etc. For definitions and more uses and different meanings of these words you should refer to a good online dictionary or printed book dictionary of English.

abbey
ability

She has the ability to pass the exam.

abolition

The abolition of restrictions encourages business expansion.

He wanted the abolition of smoking.

abortion

She had an abortion at the hospital.

absence
abuse

Some politicians abuse their official positions.

ac

The houses have 230V AC electricity. (AC = alternating current.)

academy
accent
acceptance

The applicant received his letter of acceptance from the university.

access

He failed to access the locked room.

She uses Access database to store information.

accident

It was no accident that they left the party at the same time.

The accident victim was treated by a hospital doctor and nurses.

accommodation

They stayed in bed and breakfast accommodation because it was comfortable and cheap.

account
accountability
accountant

The accountant produced the company accounts for the tax inspector.

accounting

The company has advertised a new post – Chief Accounting Officer.

accuracy

They challenged the accuracy of the witness’s evidence.

The measurement has an accuracy of 0.1%.

accusation
ace
achievement

Man’s greatest achievement is language.

acid

The science teacher explained the danger of acid being spilled in the laboratory.

acquisition
acre
act

That film star can act brilliantly.

He was coughing so badly he had to leave the theatre during act three.

The United Nations Security Council condemned the act of war and called for a ceasefire.

action

The police took action to reduce crime.

activist
activity

After the terrorist attack, there was a lot of police activity at the airport.

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I cannot see any benefit in allowing this dangerous activity to take place.

actor

He is the leading actor in the TV play.

actress
ad
adaptation
addition
address

President Obama will address the United Nations Security Council.

The visiting professor gave an address to the conference.

I wrote his name and address in my notebook.

adjective

The word ‘book’ can be used as a noun, as an adjective and as a verb.

adjustment
administration

She works in administration and has to do a lot of paperwork.

The company went into administration and eventually closed down.

administrator
admission
adoption
adult

Almost ten per cent of the adult population are HIV-Aids infected.

advance
advantage

He tried to gain an unfair advantage by bribing the government official.

adventure
advertisement
advertising
advice

She is manager of the advice centre.

What advice can you give me to solve this problem?

Students need careful advice about making wise career choices.

adviser
affair

They kept their love affair secret so that the newspapers would not publish embarassing stories.

affection
afternoon

In the morning I go to school, in the afternoon I play sport and in the evening I read books.

age

What age are you? Only people aged 18 and over are allowed in this club.

agency

They went to the ticket agency to buy theatre tickets.

The inter-governmental agency is responsible for organizing AIDS awareness campaigns in the region.

agenda

I hope the report is on the agenda of the committee meeting.

agent

He works as an agent and earns commission on every sale.

aggression

War is sometimes due to foreign aggression and sometimes aimed at liberating a nation from oppression.

agony

After the bomb blast, he was in agony waiting for the ambulance to take him to hospital.

agreement

The committee members were in agreement about the new policy proposals.

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Your agreement is vital. Without it, the plans will not be approved.

agriculture
aid

Jack learned first aid so that he could help injured people.

Foreign governments give development aid to poorer countries.

aids

The inter-governmental agency is responsible for organizing AIDS awareness campaigns in the region.

aim

My aim in life is to work hard and to play hard.

The soldier took careful aim and then fired her rifle.

air

All animals and plants depend on oxygen usually from the air around them.

Air is about 79% nitrogen and 20% oxygen; the rest is other gases including air pollution.

aircraft

The model aircraft is operated by radio control.

The aircraft experienced turbulence during the flight.

airline

When you fly there is a chance that the airline will lose your bags at the airport.

airport

Both arrival and departures are at the same airport terminal.

If you approach the airport from the south, you will see a large car park.

alarm
album
alcohol
allegation
alliance
allocation
allowance
ally

Germany is an important ally of France; they have been allies for many years.

alpha
alteration
alternative

He calls it an alternative lifestyle; I call it lazy!

aluminium
ambassador
ambiguity
ambition
ambulance

After the bomb blast, he was in agony waiting for the ambulance to take him to hospital.

amendment
american

Texas is a large American state.

In American English,

amnesty
amount

No amount of pressure will cause me to agree to your proposal.

amusement
analogy
analysis

The laboratory analysis showed that the water was dangerously polluted.

analyst
ancestor
angel
anger
angle
animal

The elephant is a large and strong animal but usually peaceful unless threatened.

ankle
anniversary
announcement
answer
ant
antibody
anxiety
apartment
apology
apparatus
appeal

He lodged an appeal against convictiion claiming that he was totally innocent of the crime.

OXFAM and other charities launched an appeal to raise money for poor people.

appearance

His appearance was very poor; his clothes were scruffy and his hands were dirty.

appendix
appetite
apple
applicant

The applicant received his letter of acceptance from the university.

application

The pharmacist said that daily application of the skin cream was necessary.

appointment

She has an appointment with the doctor this morning.

Her appointment was surprising – everyone thought she would not get the job.

appraisal
appreciation
approach

His approach to the task is to be patient and persuasive; trying to bully people is not the best approach.

If you approach the airport from the south, you will see a large car park.

The scientific approach is dispassionate and rational.

approval

They applied to the local council for planning approval to build a new office block.

arch
archbishop
architect

We asked the architect to draw a plan of the proposed new house.

architecture
archive
area

The area of a circle is the radius squared multiplied by pi.

This learning activity should help you to understand how to calculate the area of a circle.

argument

They had a serious argument which led to a quarrel and then a fight.

The lawyer submitted a detailed argument to the court claiming that the defendant had an alibi.

His argument was very logical but based on false assumptions.

arm
army

The army has several tank and infantry regiments and an airborne division.

The foreign army launched an assault on the enemy headquarters.

arrangement
array
arrest
arrival

Both arrival and departures are at the same airport terminal.

With the arrival of foreign soldiers, the people were anxious.

arrow

The archer picked up his bow and fired an arrow at the enemy.

art

She loves the world of art and literature.

The art gallery has a fine collection of paintings and statues from all over the world.

article

She wrote an interesting article for the school magazine.

artist

She is a brilliant artist – imaginative, expressive and a brilliant painter.

ash

The forest is mainly oak trees but there are some birch, ash and sycamore too.

Although the fire had finished burning, the ash was still very hot.

aspect

One aspect of his proposal worried me; the new factory was too close to the residential area.

aspiration
assault

The foreign army launched an assault on the enemy headquarters.

assembly

The National Assembly is the parliament and meets in the capital.

This assembly is an electronic device that regulates energy consumption.

The car factory has installed a new assembly line.

assertion
assessment
asset
assignment
assistance
assistant
associate
association

The Youth Hostel Association is an organization that provides cheap overnight accommodation.

The police became suspicious of his association with known terrorists and they brought him in for questioning.

The association of ideas led to a discussion covering many seemingly unrelated topics.

The Moseley Chapter of the association meets every Friday evening.

assumption
assurance
asylum
atmosphere
atom
attack
attempt

His attempt to climb Mount Everest failed because he ran out of oxygen,

attendance
attention

The teacher told the students to pay attention to the explanations.

The soldiers stood to attention and saluted when the president drove past.

attitude
attraction
attribute
auction
audience
audit
auditor
aunt
author
authority

The Health Authority gives money to the hospitals.

autonomy
autumn
availability
avenue
average
award

The soldier won a military award for bravery.

He asked the court to award the plaintiff $50000 for the serious injuries he has suffered.

This is the highest academic award that the university can offer.

awareness

The inter-governmental agency is responsible for organizing AIDS awareness campaigns in the region.

axis
baby

The baby was born at 03:30 in the city hospital.

This baby submarine can carry two people to depths of 500 metres.

back

He injured his back in a sports accident.

The two students sat at the back of the class hoping that the teacher would ignore them.

background
backing
bacterium
bag
balance
balcony
ball
ballet
balloon
ballot
ban
band
bank

She went to the bank to deposit some cheques and withdraw some cash.

banker
banking
bankruptcy
bar

He said that Vancouver is the best city bar none. (

bargain
bargaining
barn
baron
barrel
barrier
base
basin
basis

On the basis of 5 litres per person, he calculated the group would need 50 litres of water per day.

basket
bass
bastard
bat
bath
bathroom
battery

The 12 volt battery consisted of six cells each producing two volts.

battle
bay
beach
beam
bean
bear

The right to bear arms is enshrined in the US constitution. Firearms are dangerous.

bearing
beast
beat
beauty
bed

They stayed in bed and breakfast accommodation because it was comfortable and cheap.

The hotel offered us a room with a double bed or two single beds.

bedroom
bee
beef
beer
beginning
behalf
behaviour

The hooligans behaviour was totally unacceptable.

Psychologists study human behaviour and make associations between stimuli and responses.

being

The science teacher explained the danger of acid being spilled in the laboratory.

belief
bell
belt
bench
benefit

I cannot see any benefit in allowing this dangerous activity to take place.

bias
bible
bicycle
bid
bike
bile
bill

He stayed so long in the hotel that his bill amounted to over 500 dollars.

billion
bin
biography
biology
bird

The bird swooped from high in the sky and plucked a fish from the lake.

birth
birthday

We had a birthday party on Friday.

biscuit
bishop
bit

That ancient college has a royal charter and coat of arms – a bit like a logo, really!

black
bladder
blade
blanket
blast
block
bloke
blood

The blood sample was taken to the laboratory for analysis.

They gave their blood fighting fot the independence of their country.

blow
blue
board

The board of directors ordered all employees to be more efficient and give better service to customers.

boat
body

Her body is healthy but her brain is damaged.

Human communication is affected by body language and tone of voice as well as the actual words spoken.

bolt
bomb

The government increase security controls due to the bomb scare.

After the bomb blast, he was in agony waiting for the ambulance to take him to hospital.

bomber
bombing
bond
bone
bonus
book

I read the book from cover to cover.

The film is not a patch on the book (colloquial; not as good as).

booking
booklet
boom
boost
boot
border
borough
borrowing
boss

Now that the boss is back, we had better work faster.

bottle
bottom
boundary
bow

The archer picked up his bow and fired an arrow at the enemy.

bowel
bowl
bowler
box

I asked at the theatre box office but they said that no seats were available.

He put the present into a large box and wrapped it carefully before posting.

boxing
boy

The boy and his sister played together in the garden.

The boy stood on the burning deck, complaining of the heat. So he stood on his hands and tried to cool his feet.

They have two children – a boy and a girl.

boyfriend
bracket
brain

Her body is healthy but her brain is damaged.

brake
branch
brand
brass
breach
bread

The price of bread has increased greatly.

break

You will need a lot of force to break down that security door.

breakdown
breakfast

They stayed in bed and breakfast accommodation because it was comfortable and cheap.

breast
breath
breed
breeding
breeze
brewery
brick
bride
bridge
brigade
broadcast
broadcasting
brochure
broker
bronze
brother

He gave his brother and two sisters presents when he returned from vacation.

brow
brush
bucket
budget

Our budget is too small to allow luxury expenditure.

We need to budget for further expansion and increased advetising expenditure.

builder

The builder used a spirit-level to check whether the wall was level and true.

building
bulb
bulk
bull
bullet
bunch
burden
bureau
bureaucracy
burial
bus

What time does the bus service start?

Jack caught a bus to the iarport.

bush
business

The abolition of restrictions encourages business expansion.

What business is it of yours?

There was a conflict of interest between his business investments and his job as minister.

Money laundering is used to transfer money from drugs, smuggling and other crimes into legitimate business accounts.

She has a good reputation as a business leader.

His business affairs are kept separate from his political position.

The business students argued about the difference in meaning between

Her university degree is in Business Administration.

businessman
butter
butterfly
button
buyer
cab
cabin
cabinet
cable
cage
cake
calcium
calculation
calendar

February is the only calendar month with 28 days.

calf
call

He received the phone call after midnight and his sleep was disturbed.

There was a call for the minister

He calls it an alternative lifestyle; I call it lazy!

camera
camp
campaign

The advertizing campaign was very successful and sales increased by 15%.

can

The word ‘book’ can be used as a noun, as an adjective and as a verb.

I can see with both eyes.

Logic and reason can solve many problems but not all.

You can use my car to drive to town.

That film star can act brilliantly.

What advice can you give me to solve this problem?

This baby submarine can carry two people to depths of 500 metres.

This is the highest academic award that the university can offer.

Heavy plant and machinery can be very dangerous in the wrong hands.

I bought some land so that I can build a new house.

canal
cancer
candidate

The Labour Party candidate was successful in the election.

candle
canvas
cap
capability
capacity

The maximum capacity of this left is 10 persons.

capital

London is the capital city of England.

The firm needed to raise more capital to finance new investment in export markets.

capitalism
captain
car

He was injured in a car accident.

My car has broken down so I will have to go by bus.

New car drivers must learn to operate the controls with skill.

The car repair job took 3 days.

The road was wide enough for the car to overtake.

You can use my car to drive to town.

If you approach the airport from the south, you will see a large car park.

The car factory has installed a new assembly line.

I need to insure my car against fire, theft and collision damage risks.

caravan
carbon
card

He always carried his credit card in case of emergency.

care

The old woman was in need of care due to her illness.

The children played happily without a care in the world.

He needs hospital care to recover from the suregery.

career

He wanted a career in politics but he had no charisma to win votes.

Students need careful advice about making wise career choices.

carer
cargo
carpet
carriage
carrier
cart
case

I’ll wait for you in case you are late.

You travel light; you have only one case and I have several bags.

He always carried his credit card in case of emergency.

cash
cassette
cast
castle
casualty
cat
catalogue
catch
category
cathedral
catholic

The Catholic Church is a very large organization with hundreds of millions of believers.

cattle
cause

No amount of pressure will cause me to agree to your proposal.

The unnecessary movement of vehicles every day is a major cause of pollution.

caution
cave
cd
ceiling
celebration
cell

The prisoner was kept in his cell for 23 hours a day.

census
centre

The sun is the centre of our universe.

century

The nineteenth century was a very turbulent period in British history.

Robertson scored his first century in yesterday

ceremony
certainty
certificate
ch
chain
chair

A chair usually has four legs but a stool has only three.

chairman

The chairman called the meeting to order so that they could begin formal discussions.

challenge
chamber
champagne
champion
championship
chance

When you fly there is a chance that the airline will lose your bags at the airport.

Football is a game of skill but there is still an element of chance that produces surprise results.

chancellor
change

She wished for a change in the weather.

He brought a change of clothes.

I didn’t have any small change so gave him paper money.

My decision is final; you will not persuade me to change my opinion.

channel
chaos
chap
chapel
chapter

When he returned from the war, he started a new chapter in his life.

The Moseley Chapter of the association meets every Friday evening.

character

Comic character Baldrick said, ‘I have a cunning plan.’

TV comedy character Baldrick said he had a cunning plan.

characteristic
charge

The government is in charge of the army, education, health and trade.

charity
charm
chart
charter

That ancient college has a royal charter and coat of arms – a bit like a logo, really!

check

The builder used a spirit-level to check whether the wall was level and true.

cheek
cheese
chemical
chemist
chemistry
cheque
chest
chicken
chief

The company has advertised a new post – Chief Accounting Officer.

child

He was convicted of child abuse.

My child is sick. Her children are 6 and 8 years old.

childhood
chin
chip
chocolate
choice

Her choice of clothes surprised her mother. Her mother wanted her to choose different clothes.

choir
chord
chorus
christian
christianity
christmas
church

The Catholic Church is a very large organization with hundreds of millions of believers.

This church was built 500 years ago but is still used for worship today.

cigarette
cinema
circle

The area of a circle is the radius squared multiplied by pi.

circuit
circulation
circumstance
citizen
city

Mr Khan works in a city office.

Which way (direction) is it to the city centre?

The football club signed an agreement with the city council.

The baby was born at 03:30 in the city hospital.

He said that Vancouver is the best city bar none. (

London is the capital city of England.

Land is very expensive – especially in city centres and crowded countries.

claim

The passenger submitted a claim for compensation for the baggage lost at the airport.

clarity
clash
class

My school class is learning English. .

High class restaurants are usually expensive.

The two students sat at the back of the class hoping that the teacher would ignore them.

classic
classification
classroom
clause
clay
cleaner
cleaning
clergy
clerk
client
cliff
climate
clinic
clock
close

Please close the door when you go out.

One aspect of his proposal worried me; the new factory was too close to the residential area.

closure
cloth
clothes

Her choice of clothes surprised her mother. Her mother wanted her to choose different clothes.

His appearance was very poor; his clothes were scruffy and his hands were dirty.

clothing

He bought three articles of clothing in the shop.

Government issue clothing for soldiers is usually very strong and hardwearing.

cloud
club

The student joined a sports club and a musical society.

The football club signed an agreement with the city council.

Manchester United football club has bought a new player – he cost over a million Euro.

clue
cluster
cm
co
co-operation
coach
coal
coalition
coast
coat

That ancient college has a royal charter and coat of arms – a bit like a logo, really!

code
coffee
coffin
coin
cold
colitis
collaboration
collapse
collar
colleague
collection

At the end of the meeting, there was a collection to raise money for the project.

The art gallery has a fine collection of paintings and statues from all over the world.

collector
college

That ancient college has a royal charter and coat of arms – a bit like a logo, really!

colonel
colony
colour

What is the main colour on your football team’s shirts.

column
combination
comedy

TV comedy character Baldrick said he had a cunning plan.

comfort
command
commander
comment
commentary
commentator
commerce
commission

He earned 10 per cent commission on everything that he sold.

He works as an agent and earns commission on every sale.

commissioner
commitment
committee

The committee members were in agreement about the new policy proposals.

I hope the report is on the agenda of the committee meeting.

commodity
commonwealth
communication

Human communication is affected by body language and tone of voice as well as the actual words spoken.

communist
community

There is a public party tonight in the community hall.

companion
company

The accountant produced the company accounts for the tax inspector.

Don’t keep company with bad people.

The company went into administration and eventually closed down.

The labour union leaders and the company management reached a pay deal and averted a strike.

The company has advertised a new post – Chief Accounting Officer.

comparison
compensation

The passenger submitted a claim for compensation for the baggage lost at the airport.

competence
competition
competitor
complaint
completion
complex

The mechanism has a complex action.

The course of history is complex and erratic.

complexity
compliance
complication
component
composer
composition
compound
compromise
computer

Searching and sorting are very demanding computer applications.

The computer system failed to work properly.

computing
concentration
concept
conception
concern
concert
concession
conclusion
condition
conduct
conference
confidence
configuration
confirmation
conflict

There was a conflict of interest between his business investments and his job as minister.

confrontation
confusion
congregation
congress
connection
conscience
consciousness
consensus
consent
consequence
conservation
conservative
consideration

Cost is an important consideration for any purchase.

conspiracy
constable
constituency
constituent
constitution

Article 3 of the constitution guarantees equal rights for all citizens.

constraint
construction
consultant
consultation
consumer
consumption
contact
container
contemporary
contempt
content
contest
context
continent
continuity
contract

They met to sign the contract of cooperation between the parties.

contractor
contradiction
contrary
contrast
contribution
control

The government has no control over the weather.

controller
controversy
convention
conversation
conversion
conviction
cooking

Electric power is used for lighting, cooking and heating.

cooperation

They met to sign the contract of cooperation between the parties.

copper
copy
copyright
coral
core
corn
corner
corp
corporation
corps
corpse
correlation
correspondence
correspondent
corridor
corruption
cost

The cost of raw materials has increased by 12% since last year.

His drunken driving cost him his life.

Manchester United football club has bought a new player – he cost over a million Euro.

costume
cottage
cotton
council

The local council looks after street cleaning.

She was elected to the Council of Ministers.

The United Nations Security Council condemned the act of war and called for a ceasefire.

They applied to the local council for planning approval to build a new office block.

councillor
counselling
count
counter
counterpart
country

We visited a country park.

France is a large country in Europe.

It is your duty to be loyal to your country and be a good citizen.

countryside
county
coup
couple
courage
course

The course of history is complex and erratic.

The race course was very crowded with spectators.

court

The court of King Rascali was corrupt.

The judge sits in court and hears criminal cases.

The court is very busy – the judge has to hear several cases this week.

The lawyer submitted a detailed argument to the court claiming that the defendant had an alibi.

He asked the court to award the plaintiff $50000 for the serious injuries he has suffered.

The decison of the district court was overturned by the higher court of appeal.

courtesy
cousin
covenant
cover

I read the book from cover to cover.

coverage
cow
crack
craft
crash

The train crash was caused by faulty railway points.

cream

The pharmacist said that daily application of the skin cream was necessary.

creation
creature
credit

He always carried his credit card in case of emergency.

creditor
crew
cricket
crime

There is a lot of crime in this area.

criminal

The judge sits in court and hears criminal cases.

The criminal was sentenced to a term of 10 years in jail.

crisis
criterion
critic
criticism
crop
cross

Don’t cross that red line!

The protesters could not cross the police line.

crossing
crowd
crown
cry
crystal
cult
culture
cup
cupboard
cure
curiosity
currency
current
curriculum
curtain
curve
custody
custom
customer
cut

His smoking patch has helped him cut down.

cutting
cycle
cylinder
dad
daddy
dairy
damage

I need to insure my car against fire, theft and collision damage risks.

dance
dancer
dancing
danger

The science teacher explained the danger of acid being spilled in the laboratory.

dark
darkness
darling
data

The word data was originally the plural of datum.

Nowadays, the word data is generally used as an uncountable (mass) noun.

The lack of data makes it difficult to decide.

The Data Protection Officer refused to allow disclosure of private information.

database

She uses Access database to store information.

date

What date is it today?

daughter

My mother and father have two children: a daughter and a son.

dawn
day

The day after tomorrow is Thursday.

The unnecessary movement of vehicles every day is a major cause of pollution.

daylight
deadline
deal

The New Deal was a major project aimed at creating jobs and reducing poverty in America.

The labour union leaders and the company management reached a pay deal and averted a strike.

dealer
dealing
dear
death
debate
debt
debtor
debut
decade
decision

My decision is final; you will not persuade me to change my opinion.

decision-making
deck
declaration
decline
decoration
decree
deed
default
defeat
defect
defence

Mr Trasker is the Minister of Defence in the Social Democratic government.

The prosecution said that he was a murderer but the defence lawyer said it was mistaken itdentity.

defendant

The judge awarded the defendant

The lawyer submitted a detailed argument to the court claiming that the defendant had an alibi.

defender
deficiency
deficit
definition
degree

Her university degree is in Business Administration.

delay
delegate
delegation
delight
delivery
demand
democracy
democrat
demonstration
density
department

Which department do you work in?

departure
dependence
deposit

She went to the bank to deposit some cheques and withdraw some cash.

depression
depth
deputy
descent
description
desert

The Sahara Desert is vast dry in Africa.

design

His design for a new style of furniture won first prize.

designer
desire
desk
desktop
despair
destination
destruction
detail

Attention to detail is vital in forensic science.

detective
determination
developer
development

Educational development is very important for the nation.

Foreign governments give development aid to poorer countries.

The Expressionist movement was an important stage in the development of modern art.

device

This assembly is an electronic device that regulates energy consumption.

devil
diagnosis
diagram
dialogue
diameter
diamond
diary
dictionary
diesel
diet
difference

The business students argued about the difference in meaning between

difficulty

His firm had great difficulty in obtaining finance to buy the expensive new machine.

dignity
dilemma
dimension
dining
dinner
dioxide
direction
directive
director

She is the director responsible for the new department.

directory
dirt
disability
disadvantage
disagreement
disappointment
disaster
disc
discharge
discipline
disclosure

The Data Protection Officer refused to allow disclosure of private information.

discount
discourse
discovery
discretion
discrimination
discussion

The association of ideas led to a discussion covering many seemingly unrelated topics.

disease

Millions of children suffer poverty, disease and starvation due to social inequalities.

dish
disk
dismissal
disorder
display
disposal
dispute
distance
distinction
distress
distribution
district

The decison of the district court was overturned by the higher court of appeal.

disturbance
diversity
dividend
division

The division of Korea into north and south many years ago still has serious consequences today.

divorce
dna
dock
doctor

The accident victim was treated by a hospital doctor and nurses.

He spent five years at the university doing research for a doctor of philosophy degree.

She has an appointment with the doctor this morning.

doctrine
document
documentation
dog

If a dog bites a man, that is not news but if a man bites a dog, the newspapers will be interested.

doll
dollar
dolphin
domain
dominance
donation
donor
door

Please close the door when you go out.

doorway
dose
dot
double

The hotel offered us a room with a double bed or two single beds.

doubt
down

My car has broken down so I will have to go by bus.

You will need a lot of force to break down that security door.

dozen
Dr
draft
dragon
drama
draw

You should draw the picture on very thick paper or card.

We asked the architect to draw a plan of the proposed new house.

drawer
drawing
dream
dress
dressing
drill
drink
drinking
drive

You can use my car to drive to town.

driver
driving

His drunken driving cost him his life.

drop
drug

There is a new anti-cancer drug that we hope will save many lives.

drum
duck
duke
duration
dust
duty

We had to pay import duty when we brought luxury itenms into the country.

It is your duty to be loyal to your country and be a good citizen.

dwelling
eagle
ear
earl
earnings
earth

Google Earth lets you zoom in on photographs of any part of the world.

The gardener spent hours digging the earth to prepare the soil for planting seeds.

ease
east
easter
eating
echo
economics
economist
economy

They travelled in economy class

ed
edge
edition
editor
education
effect

What effect will this have on my salary?

effectiveness
efficiency
effort
egg
ego
elbow
elder
election
electorate
electricity
electron
electronics
element

Football is a game of skill but there is still an element of chance that produces surprise results.

elephant

The elephant is a large and strong animal but usually peaceful unless threatened.

elite
embarrassment
embassy
emergence
emergency
emission
emotion
emperor
emphasis
empire
employee
employer
employment
encounter
encouragement
end

At the end of the day.

The far end of the road.

At the end of the meeting, there was a collection to raise money for the project.

ending
enemy

The foreign army launched an assault on the enemy headquarters.

energy

This assembly is an electronic device that regulates energy consumption.

enforcement
engagement
engine
engineer
engineering
english

Some English people find strong Scottish accents difficult to understand.

englishman
enjoyment
enquiry
enterprise
entertainment
enthusiasm
enthusiast
entity
entrance
entry
envelope
environment
enzyme
episode
equality
equation

The mathematics teacher wrote the equation on the board.

equilibrium
equipment

The operation of this laboratory equipment is quite difficult.

equity
equivalent
era
erosion
error
escape
essay
essence
establishment
estate
estimate
european

Can you name the 27 countries of the European Union?

evaluation
evening

In the morning I go to school, in the afternoon I play sport and in the evening I read books.

event
evidence
evil
evolution
exam
examination

Conscientious study (process of learning) is the key to examination success.

example

He tries to be a role model and set a good example to all the young people.

exception
excess
exchange
excitement
exclusion
excuse
execution
executive
exemption
exercise
exhibition
exile
existence
exit
expansion

We need to budget for further expansion and increased advetising expenditure.

expectation
expedition
expenditure
expense
experience

He has three years job experience in this industry.

experiment

This experiment demonstrates the force fields around a magnet.

expert
expertise
explanation
exploitation
exploration
explosion
export

The firm needed to raise more capital to finance new investment in export markets.

exposure
express
expression

What does the expression ‘mind over matter’ mean?

extension
extent

What is the extent of your involvement?

extract
extreme
eye

He has an eye for fine art.

Keep an eye on the children.

My left eye is hurting.

eyebrow
fabric
face

The face of modern Britain.

He washed his face and brushed his hair.

facility
fact

Is this fact or fiction?

The fact is, I overslept.

faction
factor
factory

This man works hard in the factory all day.

One aspect of his proposal worried me; the new factory was too close to the residential area.

The car factory has installed a new assembly line.

faculty
failure
faith
fall
fame
family

This family of plants is nearing extinction.

My family consists of my mother, my father and me.

The family is on benefit; they depend on welfare benefits because there are so few jobs available.

fan
fantasy
fare
farm
farmer

The farmer planted rice in his field and hopes to harvest it in a few months

farming
fashion

She won a million-dollar prize in the fashion competition.

fat
fate
father

My family consists of my mother, my father and me.

My mother and father have two children: a daughter and a son.

He became lord of the manor when his father died.

fault
favour
favourite
fax
fear
feather
feature
federation
fee
feedback
feeling
fellow
female
feminist
fence
ferry
fertility
festival

The festival has so many activities you won

fever
fibre
fiction
field

The farmer planted rice in his field and hopes to harvest it in a few months

Many students find physics to be a difficult field of study.

The football field was so muddy the team could not play in their usual style.

fig
fight
fighter
fighting

They gave their blood fighting fot the independence of their country.

figure

Look at the map in figure 8.

file
film

The film is not a patch on the book (colloquial; not as good as).

The film star appeared in person.

That film star can act brilliantly.

filter
final
finance

The firm needed to raise more capital to finance new investment in export markets.

His firm had great difficulty in obtaining finance to buy the expensive new machine.

finding
fine

He has an eye for fine art.

The art gallery has a fine collection of paintings and statues from all over the world.

finger
finish
fire

Although the fire had finished burning, the ash was still very hot.

firm

The firm will enter a new market next year.

The firm needed to raise more capital to finance new investment in export markets.

His firm had great difficulty in obtaining finance to buy the expensive new machine.

fish

She bought fish at the village market.

The school of fish swam away.

The bird swooped from high in the sky and plucked a fish from the lake.

fisherman
fishing
fist
fit
fitness
fitting
flag
flame
flash
flat
flavour
fleet
flesh
flexibility
flight
flock
flood
floor
flour
flow
flower

The garden has beautiful flower beds with many different colours and stone rockeries.

fluid
fly

When you fly there is a chance that the airline will lose your bags at the airport.

focus
fog
folk
follower
folly
food

The food shortages led to civil unrest.

fool
foot

In Imperial measurements, the foot is a unit of length; a metric metre is about three feet.

football

The football club signed an agreement with the city council.

What is the main colour on your football team’s shirts.

Manchester United football club has bought a new player – he cost over a million Euro.

The football field was so muddy the team could not play in their usual style.

The football ground was very crowded with supporters of both teams.

force

This experiment demonstrates the force fields around a magnet.

You will need a lot of force to break down that security door.

The police force hopes to recruit women trainees.

The force of Earth

forecast
forehead
foreigner
forest

The forest is mainly oak trees but there are some birch, ash and sycamore too.

fork
form

The footballer was in good form and scored two goals.

Fill in the form using a ballpoint pen.

format
formation
formula
formulation
fortnight
fortune
forum
fossil
foundation
founder
fox
fraction
fragment
frame
framework
fraud
freedom

The price of freedom is obedience to the law.

french
frequency
fridge
friend

A friend in need is a friend indeed.

My friend John lives nearby.

friendship
fringe
front
frontier
fruit

What kind of fruit is this?

frustration
ft
fuel
fun
function
fund
funding
funeral
fur
furniture

His design for a new style of furniture won first prize.

fury
fusion
future
gain

He tried to gain an unfair advantage by bribing the government official.

gall
gallery

The art gallery has a fine collection of paintings and statues from all over the world.

game

Football is a game of skill but there is still an element of chance that produces surprise results.

gang
gap
garage
garden

The garden has beautiful flower beds with many different colours and stone rockeries.

We bought a new flowering plant at the garden centre.

gardener

The gardener spent hours digging the earth to prepare the soil for planting seeds.

garment
gas
gate
gathering
gaze
gear
gen
gender
gene
general
generation
genius
gentleman
geography
german
gesture
ghost
giant
gift
girl

This girl is going to be a star. Her singing voice is amazing!

girlfriend
glance
glass
glimpse
glory
glove
go

My car has broken down so I will have to go by bus.

Please close the door when you go out.

I go to sleep at night.

Wait a moment! This is not the right moment to go away. At moments like this, we need to be careful.

In the morning I go to school, in the afternoon I play sport and in the evening I read books.

goal
goat
god
gold

What is the value of this gold chain?

golf
good

The footballer was in good form and scored two goals.

The film is not a patch on the book (colloquial; not as good as).

She has a good reputation as a business leader.

It is your duty to be loyal to your country and be a good citizen.

He tries to be a role model and set a good example to all the young people.

goodness
goods
gospel
government

The government has no control over the weather.

The government increase security controls due to the bomb scare.

The government is in charge of the army, education, health and trade.

He tried to gain an unfair advantage by bribing the government official.

governor
gown
gp
grace
grade
graduate
grain
grammar
grandfather
grandmother
grant
graph
graphics
grass
grave
gravel
gravity
greek
green
greenhouse
grid
grief
grin
grip
ground

The football ground was very crowded with supporters of both teams.

I felt a movement in the ground and feared that it was an earthquake.

group

A group of students were chatting.

On the basis of 5 litres per person, he calculated the group would need 50 litres of water per day.

grouping
growth
guarantee
guard
guardian
guerrilla
guest
guidance
guide
guideline
guild
guilt
guitar
gun
guy
habit
habitat
hair
half
hall
halt
hammer
hand

He lost his right hand in an industrial accident.

handful
handicap
handle
handling
happiness
harbour
hardware
harm
harmony
harvest

The farmer planted rice in his field and hopes to harvest it in a few months

hat

I put a hat on my head.

hatred
hazard
head

They were at the head of the race.

She is the head of marketing.

headache
heading
headline
headmaster
headquarters
health

The Health Authority gives money to the hospitals.

The government is in charge of the army, education, health and trade.

heap
hearing
heart
heat
heating
heaven
hedge
heel
height
heir
helicopter
hell
help

This learning activity should help you to understand how to calculate the area of a circle.

Jack learned first aid so that he could help injured people.

hemisphere
herb
herd
heritage
hero
hierarchy
highway
Hill
hint
hip
hire
historian
history

The course of history is complex and erratic.

hit
hold
holder
holding
hole
holiday

I am going on holiday next week.

holly
home

He lives at home with his parents.

England was the home of the industrial revolution.

honey
honour

The king’s reputation and honour is unchallenged.

hook
hope

My job is well-paid and I I hope for another salary increase soon.

You hope your team will win but you can

There is a new anti-cancer drug that we hope will save many lives.

I hope that I don

I hope the report is on the agenda of the committee meeting.

horizon
horn
horror
horse
hospital

He needs hospital care to recover from the suregery.

The accident victim was treated by a hospital doctor and nurses.

host
hostage
hostility
hotel

That hotel has a bad reputation.

The hotel is in the town centre.

He stayed so long in the hotel that his bill amounted to over 500 dollars.

The hotel offered us a room with a double bed or two single beds.

hour

An hour has 60 minutes.

house

My house is on this street.

Part of the house fell down.

The house was in a poor state (condition).

One of the rooms in his house is used as a study.

The British House of Lords is unelected and some say undemocratic – but it works quite well most of the time.

household
housewife
housing
hp
human

Psychologists study human behaviour and make associations between stimuli and responses.

humanity
humour
hundred

One hundred metres is often written as 100m.

hunger
hunt
hunting
husband
hut
hydrogen
hypothesis
ice
idea

He has no idea about cooking.

I have an idea for a new book.

ideal
identification
identity
ideology
ignorance
illness

Dr Mato quickly diagnosed the illness and prescribed some medicine.

illusion
illustration
image
imagination
immigration
impact
implementation
implication
import

We had to pay import duty when we brought luxury itenms into the country.

importance
impression
imprisonment
improvement
impulse
inability
incentive
inch
incidence
incident
inclusion
income
increase

The government increase security controls due to the bomb scare.

My job is well-paid and I I hope for another salary increase soon.

independence

They gave their blood fighting fot the independence of their country.

index
indian
indication
indicator
individual
industry
inequality
infant
infection
inflation
influence
information

He gave false information to the police.

infrastructure
ingredient
inhabitant
inheritance
initiative
injection
injunction
injury
inn
innovation
input
inquiry
insect
inside
insider
insight
inspection
inspector
inspiration
installation
instance
instinct
institute
institution
instruction
instrument
insurance
intake
integration
integrity
intellectual
intelligence
intensity
intent
intention
interaction
interest

He paid 12% interest on his loan.

Did he show any interest in her painting?

There was a conflict of interest between his business investments and his job as minister.

He earned 8% interest on the money in his savings account.

interface
interference
interior
interpretation
interval
intervention
interview
introduction
invasion
invention
investigation
investigator
investment

The firm needed to raise more capital to finance new investment in export markets.

investor
invitation
involvement
iron
irony
Island
isle
isolation
issue

Government issue clothing for soldiers is usually very strong and hardwearing.

it

What business is it of yours?

Which way (direction) is it to the city centre?

They stayed in bed and breakfast accommodation because it was comfortable and cheap.

He put the present into a large box and wrapped it carefully before posting.

A passport is such an important document, you should always keep it safely.

He calls it an alternative lifestyle; I call it lazy!

Rumour has it that he is a

What date is it today?

The lack of data makes it difficult to decide.

He finds it very hard to take decisions. He procrastinates.

The prosecution said that he was a murderer but the defence lawyer said it was mistaken itdentity.

I wrote the letter and then put it in the post today so you should receive it by tomorrow.

The farmer planted rice in his field and hopes to harvest it in a few months

The British House of Lords is unelected and some say undemocratic – but it works quite well most of the time.

I felt a movement in the ground and feared that it was an earthquake.

The MDC (Movement for Democratic Change) said it would bring about improvements in the lives of ordinary people in Zimbabwe.

italian
item

The meeting discussed every item on the agenda.

jacket
jail
jam
japanese
jar
jaw
jazz
jeans
jet
jew
jewellery
job

Have you posted your job application?

He has three years job experience in this industry.

There was a conflict of interest between his business investments and his job as minister.

It’s quite a job to climb that steep hill.

My job is well-paid and I I hope for another salary increase soon.

The car repair job took 3 days.

joint
joke
journal
journalist
journey

The arrangements for the journey were very thorough.

joy
judge

The judge heard cases all day.

The judge sits in court and hears criminal cases.

The judge awarded the defendant

The court is very busy – the judge has to hear several cases this week.

judgement
judgment
juice
junction
jungle
jurisdiction
jury
justice
justification
keeper
key

Conscientious study (process of learning) is the key to examination success.

keyboard
kick
kid
killer
killing
kilometre
kind

What kind of fruit is this?

She is very kind and generous to everyone.

king

The court of King Rascali was corrupt.

He played the part of King Lear in the play.

kingdom
kiss
kit
kitchen
km
knee
knife
knight
knitting
knot
knowledge
lab
label
laboratory

The laboratory analysis showed that the water was dangerously polluted.

The blood sample was taken to the laboratory for analysis.

The operation of this laboratory equipment is quite difficult.

labour

The Labour Party candidate was successful in the election.

The labour union leaders and the company management reached a pay deal and averted a strike.

lace
lack

The lack of data makes it difficult to decide.

lad
ladder
lady
Lake
lamb
lamp
land

I bought some land so that I can build a new house.

landing
landlord
landowner
landscape
lane
language

Human communication is affected by body language and tone of voice as well as the actual words spoken.

lap
laser
laugh
laughter
launch
law

The new law was passed in parliament and enforced by the courts.

The law of nature says that all living things must eventually die.

lawn
lawyer

The lawyer submitted a detailed argument to the court claiming that the defendant had an alibi.

The prosecution said that he was a murderer but the defence lawyer said it was mistaken itdentity.

layer
layout
lb
lead
leader
leadership
leaf
leaflet
league
learner
learning

My school class is learning English. .

This learning activity should help you to understand how to calculate the area of a circle.

lease
leather
leave

He was coughing so badly he had to leave the theatre during act three.

lecture
lecturer

The accountancy lecturer explained profit and loss.

left

It was no accident that they left the party at the same time.

My left eye is hurting.

The maximum capacity of this left is 10 persons.

He could not swim because he had injured his left foot.

leg

He fell off the scaffolding and broke his leg when landed on the hard ground.

legacy
legend
legislation
leisure
lemon
length
lesson
letter

The applicant received his letter of acceptance from the university.

I wrote the letter and then put it in the post today so you should receive it by tomorrow.

level

The builder used a spirit-level to check whether the wall was level and true.

liability
liaison
liberal
liberation
liberty
librarian
library
licence
lid
lie
lieutenant
life

My aim in life is to work hard and to play hard.

lifespan
lifestyle
lifetime
lift
light
lighting
likelihood
limb
limit
limitation
line

The line of shoppers grew longer and longer.

link
lion
lip
liquid

Water has three states: solid, liquid and gas.

list
listener
listing
literature
liver
living

The law of nature says that all living things must eventually die.

All animals and plants consist of living cells.

load
loan
lobby
local

The local council looks after street cleaning.

They applied to the local council for planning approval to build a new office block.

locality
location
loch
lock
locomotive
lodge
log
logic
look

It is our policy to look after all our customers.

loop
lord

He became lord of the manor when his father died.

lordship
lorry
loss
lot

There is a lot of crime in this area.

A lot of people were at the market.

After the terrorist attack, there was a lot of police activity at the airport.

She works in administration and has to do a lot of paperwork.

You will need a lot of force to break down that security door.

lounge
love

They kept their love affair secret so that the newspapers would not publish embarassing stories.

lover
loyalty
luck
lump
lunch
lung
luxury

Our budget is too small to allow luxury expenditure.

We had to pay import duty when we brought luxury itenms into the country.

m
machine
machinery

Heavy plant and machinery can be very dangerous in the wrong hands.

madame
magazine
magic
magistrate
magnitude
maid
mail
mainframe
mainland
maintenance
majesty
major

The New Deal was a major project aimed at creating jobs and reducing poverty in America.

The unnecessary movement of vehicles every day is a major cause of pollution.

majority
make-up
maker
making

Students need careful advice about making wise career choices.

male
mammal
man

This man works hard in the factory all day.

The police arrested the man and accused him of murder.

The old man was born a very long time ago.

If a dog bites a man, that is not news but if a man bites a dog, the newspapers will be interested.

management

The labour union leaders and the company management reached a pay deal and averted a strike.

manager

She is manager of the advice centre.

manner
manor

He became lord of the manor when his father died.

manual
manufacture
manufacturer
manufacturing
manuscript
map

Look at the map in figure 8.

marble
march
margin
mark
marker
market

The firm will enter a new market next year.

marketing
marriage
mask
mass
master
match
mate
material

She bought some material to make a new dress.

Building material is very expensive but usually lasts a long time.

mathematics

The mathematics teacher wrote the equation on the board.

matrix
matter
maturity
maximum

The maximum capacity of this left is 10 persons.

mayor
meal
meaning

The business students argued about the difference in meaning between

means
meantime
measure
measurement

The measurement has an accuracy of 0.1%.

meat
mechanic
mechanism

The mechanism has a complex action.

medal
medicine

A taste of his own medicine (colloquial).

medium
meeting

The meeting discussed every item on the agenda.

The chairman called the meeting to order so that they could begin formal discussions.

member

Are you a member of this club?

She is a respected member of the community.

membership
membrane
memorandum
memorial
memory
mention
menu
merchant
mercy
merger
merit
mess
message
metal
metaphor
method
methodology
metre

In Imperial measurements, the foot is a unit of length; a metric metre is about three feet.

middle
midnight

He received the phone call after midnight and his sleep was disturbed.

migration
mile
milk
mill
million

Manchester United football club has bought a new player – he cost over a million Euro.

min
mind

She has a brilliant mind – extremely intelligent and well-educated.

Do you mind if I sit here? No, I don

mine
miner
mineral
minimum
mining
minister

The minister was accountable to parliament.

He was a minister in the Blair government.

She trained as minister of religion.

Mr Trasker is the Minister of Defence in the Social Democratic government.

ministry
minority
minute

The forensic scientist found minute particles on his clothing. They were so tiny you could not see them with the naked eye.

miracle
mirror
misery
miss
missile
mission
mist
mistake
mistress
mix
mixture
ml
mm
mobility
mode
model

The model aircraft is operated by radio control.

He tries to be a role model and set a good example to all the young people.

modification
module
molecule
moment

Wait a moment! This is not the right moment to go away. At moments like this, we need to be careful.

monarch
monarchy
money

The Health Authority gives money to the hospitals.

Do you have any money to hand?

I have no money so I cannot buy a new car.

Money laundering is used to transfer money from drugs, smuggling and other crimes into legitimate business accounts.

He earned 8% interest on the money in his savings account.

OXFAM and other charities launched an appeal to raise money for poor people.

At the end of the meeting, there was a collection to raise money for the project.

monitor
monitoring
monk
monkey
monopoly
monster
month

February is the only calendar month with 28 days.

monument
mood
moon
moor
morale
morality
morning

In the morning I go to school, in the afternoon I play sport and in the evening I read books.

mortality
mortgage
mosaic
mother

The mother fed her children.

The mother ship was escorted into harbour.

Her choice of clothes surprised her mother. Her mother wanted her to choose different clothes.

My mother and father have two children: a daughter and a son.

motif
motion
motivation
motive
motor
motorway
mould
mount

His attempt to climb Mount Everest failed because he ran out of oxygen,

Mountain
mouse
mouth
move
movement

I felt a movement in the ground and feared that it was an earthquake.

The unnecessary movement of vehicles every day is a major cause of pollution.

The Expressionist movement was an important stage in the development of modern art.

movie
mp
mps
Mr
Mrs
Ms
mucosa
mud
mug
mum
mummy
murder
murderer

The prosecution said that he was a murderer but the defence lawyer said it was mistaken itdentity.

muscle
museum
music
musician
mystery
myth
nail
name

My name is Peter.

What’s the name of your hotel?

Can you name the 27 countries of the European Union?

I wrote his name and address in my notebook.

narrative
nation

War is sometimes due to foreign aggression and sometimes aimed at liberating a nation from oppression.

nationalism
nationalist
nationality
nature

The law of nature says that all living things must eventually die.

navy
necessity
neck
need

A friend in need is a friend indeed.

I need a new part for my car.

The old woman was in need of care due to her illness.

On the basis of 5 litres per person, he calculated the group would need 50 litres of water per day.

We need to budget for further expansion and increased advetising expenditure.

Students need careful advice about making wise career choices.

You will need a lot of force to break down that security door.

Wait a moment! This is not the right moment to go away. At moments like this, we need to be careful.

I need to insure my car against fire, theft and collision damage risks.

needle
negligence

The result of his negligence was severe injury.

negotiation
neighbour
neighbourhood
nerve
nest
net
network
newcomer
news

If a dog bites a man, that is not news but if a man bites a dog, the newspapers will be interested.

newspaper
night

I have to work the night shift on alternate weeks.

nightmare
no

It was no accident that they left the party at the same time.

The government has no control over the weather.

He has no idea about cooking.

I have no money so I cannot buy a new car.

What use are tea leaves if you have no hot water?

I asked at the theatre box office but they said that no seats were available.

He wanted a career in politics but he had no charisma to win votes.

I had no alternative; I had to walk 20km to get home.

node
noise
nonsense
norm
north

The division of Korea into north and south many years ago still has serious consequences today.

north-east
north-west
nose
note
notebook
notice
notion
novel
nuisance
number

This number is greater than ten.

nurse
nursery
nursing
nut
oak

The forest is mainly oak trees but there are some birch, ash and sycamore too.

object
objection
objective
obligation
observation
observer
obstacle
occasion
occupation
occurrence
ocean
odds
offence
offender
offer
offering
office

I work in an office building.

The office of President is extremely powerful.

I asked at the theatre box office but they said that no seats were available.

They applied to the local council for planning approval to build a new office block.

officer

The Data Protection Officer refused to allow disclosure of private information.

official

Some politicians abuse their official positions.

oil
one

You travel light; you have only one case and I have several bags.

Earth is one of the planets of the solar system.

onion
opening
opera
operating
operation

She is revcovering from an operation in hospital.

The operation of this laboratory equipment is quite difficult.

operator
opinion
opponent
opportunity
opposite
opposition
option
orange
orchestra
order

The chairman called the meeting to order so that they could begin formal discussions.

organ
organisation
organiser
organism
organization

The Youth Hostel Association is an organization that provides cheap overnight accommodation.

The Catholic Church is a very large organization with hundreds of millions of believers.

orientation
origin
other

Money laundering is used to transfer money from drugs, smuggling and other crimes into legitimate business accounts.

The other side of the moon.

Air is about 79% nitrogen and 20% oxygen; the rest is other gases including air pollution.

OXFAM and other charities launched an appeal to raise money for poor people.

outbreak
outcome
outfit
outlet
outline
outlook
output
outsider
oven
owl
owner
ownership
oxygen

All animals and plants depend on oxygen usually from the air around them.

ozone
p
pace
pack
package
packet
pact
pad
page
pain
paint
painter
painting
pair
palace
palm
pan
panel
panic
paper

I didn’t have any small change so gave him paper money.

You should draw the picture on very thick paper or card.

para
parade
paragraph
parallel
parameter
parcel
pardon
parent
parish
park
parking
parliament

The new law was passed in parliament and enforced by the courts.

The National Assembly is the parliament and meets in the capital.

part

I need a new part for my car.

He played the part of King Lear in the play.

I take part in sports.

Google Earth lets you zoom in on photographs of any part of the world.

participant
participation
particle
partner
partnership
party

It was no accident that they left the party at the same time.

We had a birthday party on Friday.

The Labour Party candidate was successful in the election.

There is a public party tonight in the community hall.

pass

She has the ability to pass the exam.

passage
passenger

The passenger submitted a claim for compensation for the baggage lost at the airport.

passion
passport

A passport is such an important document, you should always keep it safely.

past
patch

His smoking patch has helped him cut down.

The film is not a patch on the book (colloquial; not as good as).

He put a patch on his torn trousers.

patent
path
patience
patient

His approach to the task is to be patient and persuasive; trying to bully people is not the best approach.

patrol
patron
pattern
pause
pavement
pay

We pay our taxes year after year.

The teacher told the students to pay attention to the explanations.

We had to pay import duty when we brought luxury itenms into the country.

The labour union leaders and the company management reached a pay deal and averted a strike.

payment
pc

I installed Media Player on my PC so tha I could listen to CDs.

peace
peak
peasant
peer
pen
penalty
pence
pencil
penny
pension
pensioner
people

Some English people find strong Scottish accents difficult to understand.

With the arrival of foreign soldiers, the people were anxious.

Other people were present.

Some people eat pork and some don’t.

A lot of people were at the market.

What age are you? Only people aged 18 and over are allowed in this club.

His approach to the task is to be patient and persuasive; trying to bully people is not the best approach.

Most people have two arms and two legs. He has a tatoo on his right arm.

This baby submarine can carry two people to depths of 500 metres.

The MDC (Movement for Democratic Change) said it would bring about improvements in the lives of ordinary people in Zimbabwe.

pepper
per cent (%)

Inflation increased to 5 per cent (%) last year.

percent
percentage

What percentage of students work hard for their examinations?

perception
performance
performer
period

He was absent for a period of three weeks.

The period from June to August is a very busy time.

Her period was overdue.

The nineteenth century was a very turbulent period in British history.

permission
person

He is a person of integrity.

She was acting like a very upset person but I

personality
personnel
perspective
pet
petition
petrol
ph
phase
phenomenon
philosopher
philosophy

He spent five years at the university doing research for a doctor of philosophy degree.

phone

He received the phone call after midnight and his sleep was disturbed.

photo
photograph
photographer
photography
phrase

test phrase amended

The phrase

physics

Many students find physics to be a difficult field of study.

piano
picture

You should draw the picture on very thick paper or card.

pie
piece
pier
pig
pile
pill
pillar
pillow
pilot
pin
pine
pint
pipe
pit
pitch
pity
place

This is the place to be.

placement
plain
plaintiff

He asked the court to award the plaintiff $50000 for the serious injuries he has suffered.

plan

We asked the architect to draw a plan of the proposed new house.

When do you plan to get married?

plane
planet
planner
planning

They applied to the local council for planning approval to build a new office block.

plant

We bought a new flowering plant at the garden centre.

Heavy plant and machinery can be very dangerous in the wrong hands.

plastic
plate
platform
play

My aim in life is to work hard and to play hard.

The football field was so muddy the team could not play in their usual style.

In the morning I go to school, in the afternoon I play sport and in the evening I read books.

player

I installed Media Player on my PC so tha I could listen to CDs.

Manchester United football club has bought a new player – he cost over a million Euro.

plc
plea
pleasure
plot
pocket
poem
poet
poetry
point

What is the point of doing that?

What is your point of view?

poison
pole
police

The police took action to reduce crime.

The protesters could not cross the police line.

The police arrested the man and accused him of murder.

After the terrorist attack, there was a lot of police activity at the airport.

The police became suspicious of his association with known terrorists and they brought him in for questioning.

The police force hopes to recruit women trainees.

After the fight, the police charged the suspect with assault.

policeman
policy

It is our policy to look after all our customers.

The committee members were in agreement about the new policy proposals.

politician
politics

He wanted a career in politics but he had no charisma to win votes.

poll
pollution

We must reduce pollution to protect the environment.

polymer
polytechnic
pond
pony
pool
pop
pope
popularity
population

Almost ten per cent of the adult population are HIV-Aids infected.

port
portfolio
portion
portrait
position
possession
possibility
post

I wrote the letter and then put it in the post today so you should receive it by tomorrow.

The company has advertised a new post – Chief Accounting Officer.

poster
pot
potato
potential
pound
poverty

The war on poverty is urgent.

The New Deal was a major project aimed at creating jobs and reducing poverty in America.

powder
power

Electric power is used for lighting, cooking and heating.

Political power corrupts many leaders.

pp
practice
practitioner
praise
prayer
precedent
precision
predator
predecessor
prediction
preference
pregnancy
prejudice
premise
premium
preparation
prescription
presence
present

He put the present into a large box and wrapped it carefully before posting.

presentation
preservation
presidency
president

The office of President is extremely powerful.

The soldiers stood to attention and saluted when the president drove past.

press

The press are very biased – I don

pressure

No amount of pressure will cause me to agree to your proposal.

prevention
prey
price

The price of freedom is obedience to the law.

The price of bread has increased greatly.

We will not refund the ticket price under any circumstances.

pride
priest
primary
prince
princess
principal
principle
print
printer
printing
priority
prison
prisoner

The prisoner was kept in his cell for 23 hours a day.

privacy
privatisation
privilege
prize

She won a million-dollar prize in the fashion competition.

probability
probe
problem

I have a problem with my car.

procedure
proceed
proceeding
process
processing
processor
producer
product
production

Component shortages delayed production of the new cars.

productivity
profession
professional
professor

The professor published his study of AIDS.

The visiting professor gave an address to the conference.

profile
profit

His shop makes about 7% profit on turnover.

The accountancy lecturer explained profit and loss.

program
programme
programming
progress
project

The New Deal was a major project aimed at creating jobs and reducing poverty in America.

projection
promise

Do you promise to keep your word.

promoter
promotion
proof
propaganda
property
proportion
proposal

The proposal met a sudden death.

One aspect of his proposal worried me; the new factory was too close to the residential area.

proposition
prosecution

The prosecution said that he was a murderer but the defence lawyer said it was mistaken itdentity.

prospect
prosperity
protection

The Data Protection Officer refused to allow disclosure of private information.

protein
protest
protocol
provider
province
provision
psychologist
psychology
pub
public

There is a public party tonight in the community hall.

publication
publicity
publisher
publishing
pudding
pulse
pump
punch
punishment
pupil
purchase
purchaser
purpose
pursuit
pylorus
qualification
quality
quantity
quarry
quarter
queen
query
question

It’s a question of common sense.

I asked a question and he gave me an answer.

questionnaire
queue
quid
quota
quotation
rabbit
race

The race course was very crowded with spectators.

racism
radiation
radio

The model aircraft is operated by radio control.

rage
raid
rail
railway

The train crash was caused by faulty railway points.

rain
rainbow
rally
ram
range
ranger
rank
rape
rat
rate

What rate do you charge?

rating
ratio
reach
reaction
reactor
reader
reading
reality
realm
rear
reason

He asked for the reason I was late.

Logic and reason can solve many problems but not all.

reasoning
rebel
rebellion
receipt
receiver
reception
recession
recipe
recipient
recognition
recommendation
reconstruction
record
recorder
recording
recovery
recruitment
red

Don’t cross that red line!

You cannot enter this zone. The red zone is restricted. The twilight zone.

reduction
redundancy
ref
referee
reference
referendum
referral
reflection
reform
refuge
refugee
refusal
regard
regime
regiment
region
register
registration
regulation
rehearsal
reign
rejection
relation
relationship
relative
relaxation
release
relevance
relief
religion
reluctance
remainder
remains
remark
remedy
reminder
removal
renaissance
renewal
rent
repair

The car repair job took 3 days.

repayment
repetition
replacement
reply
report

I was shocked by the report on global warming.

Jane’s school report was excellent.

I hope the report is on the agenda of the committee meeting.

reporter
reporting
representation
representative
reproduction
republic
republican
reputation

She has a good reputation as a business leader.

The king’s reputation and honour is unchallenged.

request
requirement
rescue
research

He spent five years at the university doing research for a doctor of philosophy degree.

researcher
resentment
reservation
reserve
reservoir
residence
resident
residue
resignation
resistance
resolution
resort
resource
respect
respondent
response
responsibility
rest

Air is about 79% nitrogen and 20% oxygen; the rest is other gases including air pollution.

restaurant
restoration
restraint
restriction
result

The result of his negligence was severe injury.

What was the result of the test?

retailer
retirement
retreat
return
rev
revelation
revenge
revenue
review
revision
revival
revolution
reward
rhythm
rib
ribbon
rice

The farmer planted rice in his field and hopes to harvest it in a few months

ride
rider
ridge
rifle
right

He lost his right hand in an industrial accident.

She is right to complain about the poor working conditions.

We have the right to vote.

Most people have two arms and two legs. He has a tatoo on his right arm.

The right to bear arms is enshrined in the US constitution. Firearms are dangerous.

Wait a moment! This is not the right moment to go away. At moments like this, we need to be careful.

ring
riot
rise
risk
ritual
rival
River

After several days of heavy rain, the river flooded its banks.

road

Hard work is the road to success.

The road was wide enough for the car to overtake.

rock
rod
role

He tries to be a role model and set a good example to all the young people.

roll
roman
romance
roof
room

It looks so crowded; is there any room (space) to sit down?

This room is used for storing boxes.

The hotel offered us a room with a double bed or two single beds.

root
rope
rose
round
route
routine
row
rubbish
rug
rugby
ruin
rule
ruler
ruling
rumour
run
runner
running
rush
russian
sack
sacrifice
safety
sail
sailor
saint
sake
salad
salary

My job is well-paid and I I hope for another salary increase soon.

sale
sales

The advertizing campaign was very successful and sales increased by 15%.

salmon
salt
salvation
sample

The blood sample was taken to the laboratory for analysis.

sanction
sand
sandwich
satellite
satisfaction
sauce
saving
scale
scandal
scene
scent
schedule
scheme
scholar
scholarship
school

The alterations to the school rules were among many proposed changes.

My school class is learning English. .

Jane’s school report was excellent.

The school of fish swam away.

He liked the school teacher because she was knowledgeable and entertaining.

The school year has three terms or trimesters.

I like my new school – it’s a friendly but hard-working environment.

She wrote an interesting article for the school magazine.

science

The science teacher explained the danger of acid being spilled in the laboratory.

scientist

The forensic scientist found minute particles on his clothing. They were so tiny you could not see them with the naked eye.

scope
score
scot
scrap
screen
script
scrutiny
sculpture
Sea

His village is only ten metres above sea level.

seal
search

The divers explored the seabed in search of the wrecked ship.

season
seat
second
secret

They kept their love affair secret so that the newspapers would not publish embarassing stories.

The FBI use secret agents to smash drugs cartels.

Secretary
section
sector
security

The government increase security controls due to the bomb scare.

The United Nations Security Council condemned the act of war and called for a ceasefire.

President Obama will address the United Nations Security Council.

You will need a lot of force to break down that security door.

sediment
seed
segment
selection
self
seller
selling
semi-final
seminar
senate
sensation
sense
sensitivity
sentence
sentiment
separation
sequence
sergeant
series
serum
servant
server
service

What time does the bus service start?

The religious service began at 10:00.

The service is very fast in this restaurant.

The board of directors ordered all employees to be more efficient and give better service to customers.

session
set

He tries to be a role model and set a good example to all the young people.

setting
settlement
sex
sexuality
shade
shadow
shaft
shame
shape
share
shareholder
shed
sheep
sheet
shelf
shell
shelter
shield
shift

I have to work the night shift on alternate weeks.

shilling
ship

The mother ship was escorted into harbour.

shirt
shit
shock
shoe
shooting
shop

His shop makes about 7% profit on turnover.

shopping
shore
shortage

There is a shortage of water in the desert.

shot
shoulder
show

Did he show any interest in her painting?

shower
sickness
side

The other side of the moon.

This side of summer.

This side of the road.

A side of beef.

sigh
sight
sign

They met to sign the contract of cooperation between the parties.

signal
signature
significance
silence
silk
silver
similarity
sin
singer
single

The hotel offered us a room with a double bed or two single beds.

sink
sir
sister

The boy and his sister played together in the garden.

site
situation
size
sketch
skill

Football is a game of skill but there is still an element of chance that produces surprise results.

skin

The pharmacist said that daily application of the skin cream was necessary.

skirt
skull
sky

The bird swooped from high in the sky and plucked a fish from the lake.

slave
sleep

I go to sleep at night.

He received the phone call after midnight and his sleep was disturbed.

sleeve
slice
slide
slip
slope
smell
smile
smoke
smoking

His smoking patch has helped him cut down.

snake
snow
soap
soccer
socialism
society
sociology
sock
sofa
software
soil

The gardener spent hours digging the earth to prepare the soil for planting seeds.

soldier

The soldier won a military award for bravery.

The soldier took careful aim and then fired her rifle.

solicitor
solidarity
solo
solution
son
song
sort
soul
sound
soup
source
south

The division of Korea into north and south many years ago still has serious consequences today.

south-east
sovereignty
soviet
space
speaker
specialist
species
specification
specimen
spectacle
spectator
spectrum
speculation
speech
speed
spell
spelling
spending
sphere
spider
spine
spirit
spokesman
sponsor
sponsorship
sport

In the morning I go to school, in the afternoon I play sport and in the evening I read books.

spot
spread
spring
spur
squad
squadron
square
st
stability
stadium
staff
stage

The Expressionist movement was an important stage in the development of modern art.

staircase
stairs
stake
stall
stamp
stance
stand
standard
standing
star

The film star appeared in person.

That film star can act brilliantly.

start
starting
state

The house was in a poor state (condition).

statement
station
statistics
statue
status
statute
stay
steam
steel
stem
step
sterling
steward
stick
stimulus
stitch
stock
stomach
stone

The garden has beautiful flower beds with many different colours and stone rockeries.

stool

A chair usually has four legs but a stool has only three.

stop
storage
store

She uses Access database to store information.

storm
story
strain
strand
stranger

I was approached by a stranger who tried to sell me a fake watch.

strategy
straw
stream
street

The local council looks after street cleaning.

strength
stress
stretch
strike
striker
string
strip
stroke
structure
struggle
student

The student joined a sports club and a musical society.

studio
study

Conscientious study (process of learning) is the key to examination success.

The professor published his study of AIDS.

Psychologists study human behaviour and make associations between stimuli and responses.

stuff
style

His design for a new style of furniture won first prize.

subject
submission
subscription
subsidiary
subsidy
substance
substitute
suburb
success
succession
successor
sufferer
suffering
sugar
suggestion
suicide
suit
suite
sum
summary
summer
summit
sun

The sun is the centre of our universe.

sunlight
sunshine
superintendent
supermarket
supervision
supervisor
supper
supplement
supplier
supply
support
supporter
surface
surgeon
surgery
surplus
surprise

Football is a game of skill but there is still an element of chance that produces surprise results.

surroundings
survey
surveyor
survival
survivor
suspect

After the fight, the police charged the suspect with assault.

suspension
suspicion
sweat
swimming
swing
switch
sword
symbol
sympathy
symptom
syndrome
synthesis
system

The computer system failed to work properly.

t-shirt
table
tablet
tactic
tail
takeover
tale
talent
talk
tank

The army has several tank and infantry regiments and an airborne division.

tap
tape
target
tariff
task

His approach to the task is to be patient and persuasive; trying to bully people is not the best approach.

taste

A taste of his own medicine (colloquial).

A taste of luxury.

tax

The accountant produced the company accounts for the tax inspector.

taxation
taxi
taxpayer
tea

The tea has a refreshing taste.

What use are tea leaves if you have no hot water?

teacher

He liked the school teacher because she was knowledgeable and entertaining.

The two students sat at the back of the class hoping that the teacher would ignore them.

The teacher told the students to pay attention to the explanations.

The mathematics teacher wrote the equation on the board.

The science teacher explained the danger of acid being spilled in the laboratory.

teaching
team

You hope your team will win but you can

The football field was so muddy the team could not play in their usual style.

tear
technique
technology
teenager
tel
telecommunication
telegraph
telephone
television
temper
temperature
temple
temptation
tenant
tendency
tennis
tension
tent
term

The criminal was sentenced to a term of 10 years in jail.

What does the scientific term ‘relativity’ mean?

terminal
terrace
territory
terror
terrorist

After the terrorist attack, there was a lot of police activity at the airport.

test
testament
testing
text
textile
texture
thanks
theatre

The theatre had a full house.

He was coughing so badly he had to leave the theatre during act three.

They went to the ticket agency to buy theatre tickets.

I asked at the theatre box office but they said that no seats were available.

theft

I need to insure my car against fire, theft and collision damage risks.

theme
theology
theory
therapy
thesis
thief
thigh
thing

What is this thing lying on the floor?

thinking
thought

Her appointment was surprising – everyone thought she would not get the job.

thousand
thread
threat
threshold
throat
throne
thumb
ticket

They went to the ticket agency to buy theatre tickets.

We will not refund the ticket price under any circumstances.

tide
tie
tiger
tile
timber
time

What time does the bus service start?

What time is it?

The old man was born a very long time ago.

timetable
timing
tin
tip
tissue
title
toast
tobacco
toe
toilet
tomato
ton
tone

Human communication is affected by body language and tone of voice as well as the actual words spoken.

tongue
tonne
tool

This tool has many uses.

tooth
top
topic
torch
tory
total
touch
tour
tourism
tourist
tournament
towel
tower
town

Our town is too small to be a city.

The hotel is in the town centre.

toy
trace
track
trade
trader
trading
tradition
traffic
tragedy
trail
train

The train crash was caused by faulty railway points.

trainee
trainer
training
transaction
transfer

Money laundering is used to transfer money from drugs, smuggling and other crimes into legitimate business accounts.

transformation
transition
translation
transmission
transport
trap
travel

You travel light; you have only one case and I have several bags.

traveller
tray
treasure
treasury
treatment
treaty
tree
trend
trial
triangle
tribe
tribunal
tribute
trick
trip
triumph
troop
trophy
trouble
trousers
truck
trunk
trust
trustee
truth
try
tube
tumour
tune
tunnel
turn
turnover
tutor
tv

He is the leading actor in the TV play.

twin
type
tyre
ulcer
uncertainty
uncle
understanding
undertaking
unemployment
uniform
union

The labour union leaders and the company management reached a pay deal and averted a strike.

unionist
unit

In Imperial measurements, the foot is a unit of length; a metric metre is about three feet.

unity
universe
university

This is the highest academic award that the university can offer.

He spent five years at the university doing research for a doctor of philosophy degree.

Her university degree is in Business Administration.

unix
usage
use

What use are tea leaves if you have no hot water?

You can use my car to drive to town.

The FBI use secret agents to smash drugs cartels.

user
utility
utterance
validity
valley
valuation
value

What is the value of this gold chain?

valve
van
variable
variant
variation
variety
vat
vegetable
vegetation
vehicle
vein
velocity
vendor
venture
venue
verb

Abuse as a noun is pronounced ‘a-bewSe’ and the verb is pronounced ‘a-bewZe’.

verdict
verse
version
vessel
Vice-President
victim

The accident victim was treated by a hospital doctor and nurses.

victory
video
view

The view from Cape Town

viewer
viewpoint
villa
village

His village is only ten metres above sea level.

She bought fish at the village market.

violence
virgin
virtue
virus
vision
visit
visitor
vitamin
vocabulary
voice

Human communication is affected by body language and tone of voice as well as the actual words spoken.

This girl is going to be a star. Her singing voice is amazing!

vol
voltage
volume
volunteer
vote
voter
voting
wage
waist
waiter
waiting

After the bomb blast, he was in agony waiting for the ambulance to take him to hospital.

wake
walk

I had no alternative; I had to walk 20km to get home.

walking
wall

The builder used a spirit-level to check whether the wall was level and true.

war

The war on poverty is urgent.

There is a war of words between the politicians.

The United Nations Security Council condemned the act of war and called for a ceasefire.

ward
wardrobe
warehouse
warmth
warning
warrant
warrior
wartime
washing
waste
watch
water

There is a shortage of water in the desert.

She drinks two litres of water every day.

The laboratory analysis showed that the water was dangerously polluted.

On the basis of 5 litres per person, he calculated the group would need 50 litres of water per day.

wave
way

I enjoy this way (method) of learning.

Which way (direction) is it to the city centre?

weakness
wealth
weapon
weather
wedding
week
weekend
weight
welcome
welfare

The family is on benefit; they depend on welfare benefits because there are so few jobs available.

well

Human communication is affected by body language and tone of voice as well as the actual words spoken.

The British House of Lords is unelected and some say undemocratic – but it works quite well most of the time.

west
whale
wheat
wheel
while
whisky
white
whole
wicket
widow
width
wife
wildlife
will

My car has broken down so I will have to go by bus.

What effect will this have on my salary?

The firm will enter a new market next year.

When will the examinsation results be announced?

Your agreement is vital. Without it, the plans will not be approved.

If you approach the airport from the south, you will see a large car park.

No amount of pressure will cause me to agree to your proposal.

You hope your team will win but you can

When you fly there is a chance that the airline will lose your bags at the airport.

We will not refund the ticket price under any circumstances.

If a dog bites a man, that is not news but if a man bites a dog, the newspapers will be interested.

There is a new anti-cancer drug that we hope will save many lives.

President Obama will address the United Nations Security Council.

My decision is final; you will not persuade me to change my opinion.

You will need a lot of force to break down that security door.

willingness
win

You hope your team will win but you can

He wanted a career in politics but he had no charisma to win votes.

wind
window
wine
wing
winner
winter
wire
wisdom
wish
wit
withdrawal
witness

The witness stated that they had seen the attack.

wolf
woman

She was the first woman to be become president.

The old woman was in need of care due to her illness.

wonder
wood
woodland
wool
word

The word ‘book’ can be used as a noun, as an adjective and as a verb.

They got word of his death.

I found the word in the dictionary.

The word data was originally the plural of datum.

Nowadays, the word data is generally used as an uncountable (mass) noun.

work

I work in an office building.

Hard work is the road to success.

The computer system failed to work properly.

I enjoy my work as a teacher.

Now that the boss is back, we had better work faster.

I have to work the night shift on alternate weeks.

My aim in life is to work hard and to play hard.

What percentage of students work hard for their examinations?

Which department do you work in?

worker
workforce
working

She is right to complain about the poor working conditions.

works

This man works hard in the factory all day.

Mr Khan works in a city office.

She works in administration and has to do a lot of paperwork.

He works as an agent and earns commission on every sale.

The British House of Lords is unelected and some say undemocratic – but it works quite well most of the time.

workshop
workstation
world

She loves the world of art and literature.

He flew around the world in 3 days.

worm
worry
worship

This church was built 500 years ago but is still used for worship today.

worth
wound
wrist
writer
writing
yacht
yard
yarn
year

The school year has three terms or trimesters.

Last year I went to Spain.

A year has 12 months.

We pay our taxes year after year.

yield
youngster
youth

The Youth Hostel Association is an organization that provides cheap overnight accommodation.

zone

You cannot enter this zone. The red zone is restricted. The twilight zone.

Top 500 nouns

These lists show you which words are used most often. They give you examples of their correct use in phrases or sentences. Note that some words may be used as noun, verb, adjective etc. For definitions and more uses and different meanings of these words you should refer to a good online dictionary or printed book dictionary of English.

area

The area of a circle is the radius squared multiplied by pi.

This learning activity should help you to understand how to calculate the area of a circle.

authority

The Health Authority gives money to the hospitals.

body

Her body is healthy but her brain is damaged.

Human communication is affected by body language and tone of voice as well as the actual words spoken.

book

I read the book from cover to cover.

The film is not a patch on the book (colloquial; not as good as).

business

The abolition of restrictions encourages business expansion.

What business is it of yours?

There was a conflict of interest between his business investments and his job as minister.

Money laundering is used to transfer money from drugs, smuggling and other crimes into legitimate business accounts.

She has a good reputation as a business leader.

His business affairs are kept separate from his political position.

The business students argued about the difference in meaning between

Her university degree is in Business Administration.

car

He was injured in a car accident.

My car has broken down so I will have to go by bus.

New car drivers must learn to operate the controls with skill.

The car repair job took 3 days.

The road was wide enough for the car to overtake.

You can use my car to drive to town.

If you approach the airport from the south, you will see a large car park.

The car factory has installed a new assembly line.

I need to insure my car against fire, theft and collision damage risks.

case

I’ll wait for you in case you are late.

You travel light; you have only one case and I have several bags.

He always carried his credit card in case of emergency.

centre

The sun is the centre of our universe.

change

She wished for a change in the weather.

He brought a change of clothes.

I didn’t have any small change so gave him paper money.

My decision is final; you will not persuade me to change my opinion.

child

He was convicted of child abuse.

My child is sick. Her children are 6 and 8 years old.

city

Mr Khan works in a city office.

Which way (direction) is it to the city centre?

The football club signed an agreement with the city council.

The baby was born at 03:30 in the city hospital.

He said that Vancouver is the best city bar none. (

London is the capital city of England.

Land is very expensive – especially in city centres and crowded countries.

community

There is a public party tonight in the community hall.

company

The accountant produced the company accounts for the tax inspector.

Don’t keep company with bad people.

The company went into administration and eventually closed down.

The labour union leaders and the company management reached a pay deal and averted a strike.

The company has advertised a new post – Chief Accounting Officer.

council

The local council looks after street cleaning.

She was elected to the Council of Ministers.

The United Nations Security Council condemned the act of war and called for a ceasefire.

They applied to the local council for planning approval to build a new office block.

country

We visited a country park.

France is a large country in Europe.

It is your duty to be loyal to your country and be a good citizen.

court

The court of King Rascali was corrupt.

The judge sits in court and hears criminal cases.

The court is very busy – the judge has to hear several cases this week.

The lawyer submitted a detailed argument to the court claiming that the defendant had an alibi.

He asked the court to award the plaintiff $50000 for the serious injuries he has suffered.

The decison of the district court was overturned by the higher court of appeal.

day

The day after tomorrow is Thursday.

The unnecessary movement of vehicles every day is a major cause of pollution.

development

Educational development is very important for the nation.

Foreign governments give development aid to poorer countries.

The Expressionist movement was an important stage in the development of modern art.

door

Please close the door when you go out.

effect

What effect will this have on my salary?

end

At the end of the day.

The far end of the road.

At the end of the meeting, there was a collection to raise money for the project.

eye

He has an eye for fine art.

Keep an eye on the children.

My left eye is hurting.

face

The face of modern Britain.

He washed his face and brushed his hair.

fact

Is this fact or fiction?

The fact is, I overslept.

family

This family of plants is nearing extinction.

My family consists of my mother, my father and me.

The family is on benefit; they depend on welfare benefits because there are so few jobs available.

figure

Look at the map in figure 8.

form

The footballer was in good form and scored two goals.

Fill in the form using a ballpoint pen.

friend

A friend in need is a friend indeed.

My friend John lives nearby.

government

The government has no control over the weather.

The government increase security controls due to the bomb scare.

The government is in charge of the army, education, health and trade.

He tried to gain an unfair advantage by bribing the government official.

group

A group of students were chatting.

On the basis of 5 litres per person, he calculated the group would need 50 litres of water per day.

hand

He lost his right hand in an industrial accident.

head

They were at the head of the race.

She is the head of marketing.

home

He lives at home with his parents.

England was the home of the industrial revolution.

hour

An hour has 60 minutes.

house

My house is on this street.

Part of the house fell down.

The house was in a poor state (condition).

One of the rooms in his house is used as a study.

The British House of Lords is unelected and some say undemocratic – but it works quite well most of the time.

idea

He has no idea about cooking.

I have an idea for a new book.

information

He gave false information to the police.

interest

He paid 12% interest on his loan.

Did he show any interest in her painting?

There was a conflict of interest between his business investments and his job as minister.

He earned 8% interest on the money in his savings account.

job

Have you posted your job application?

He has three years job experience in this industry.

There was a conflict of interest between his business investments and his job as minister.

It’s quite a job to climb that steep hill.

My job is well-paid and I I hope for another salary increase soon.

The car repair job took 3 days.

kind

What kind of fruit is this?

She is very kind and generous to everyone.

law

The new law was passed in parliament and enforced by the courts.

The law of nature says that all living things must eventually die.

level

The builder used a spirit-level to check whether the wall was level and true.

life

My aim in life is to work hard and to play hard.

line

The line of shoppers grew longer and longer.

man

This man works hard in the factory all day.

The police arrested the man and accused him of murder.

The old man was born a very long time ago.

If a dog bites a man, that is not news but if a man bites a dog, the newspapers will be interested.

market

The firm will enter a new market next year.

member

Are you a member of this club?

She is a respected member of the community.

million

Manchester United football club has bought a new player – he cost over a million Euro.

minister

The minister was accountable to parliament.

He was a minister in the Blair government.

She trained as minister of religion.

Mr Trasker is the Minister of Defence in the Social Democratic government.

money

The Health Authority gives money to the hospitals.

Do you have any money to hand?

I have no money so I cannot buy a new car.

Money laundering is used to transfer money from drugs, smuggling and other crimes into legitimate business accounts.

He earned 8% interest on the money in his savings account.

OXFAM and other charities launched an appeal to raise money for poor people.

At the end of the meeting, there was a collection to raise money for the project.

month

February is the only calendar month with 28 days.

mother

The mother fed her children.

The mother ship was escorted into harbour.

Her choice of clothes surprised her mother. Her mother wanted her to choose different clothes.

My mother and father have two children: a daughter and a son.

Mr
name

My name is Peter.

What’s the name of your hotel?

Can you name the 27 countries of the European Union?

I wrote his name and address in my notebook.

need

A friend in need is a friend indeed.

I need a new part for my car.

The old woman was in need of care due to her illness.

On the basis of 5 litres per person, he calculated the group would need 50 litres of water per day.

We need to budget for further expansion and increased advetising expenditure.

Students need careful advice about making wise career choices.

You will need a lot of force to break down that security door.

Wait a moment! This is not the right moment to go away. At moments like this, we need to be careful.

I need to insure my car against fire, theft and collision damage risks.

night

I have to work the night shift on alternate weeks.

number

This number is greater than ten.

office

I work in an office building.

The office of President is extremely powerful.

I asked at the theatre box office but they said that no seats were available.

They applied to the local council for planning approval to build a new office block.

other

Money laundering is used to transfer money from drugs, smuggling and other crimes into legitimate business accounts.

The other side of the moon.

Air is about 79% nitrogen and 20% oxygen; the rest is other gases including air pollution.

OXFAM and other charities launched an appeal to raise money for poor people.

part

I need a new part for my car.

He played the part of King Lear in the play.

I take part in sports.

Google Earth lets you zoom in on photographs of any part of the world.

party

It was no accident that they left the party at the same time.

We had a birthday party on Friday.

The Labour Party candidate was successful in the election.

There is a public party tonight in the community hall.

people

Some English people find strong Scottish accents difficult to understand.

With the arrival of foreign soldiers, the people were anxious.

Other people were present.

Some people eat pork and some don’t.

A lot of people were at the market.

What age are you? Only people aged 18 and over are allowed in this club.

His approach to the task is to be patient and persuasive; trying to bully people is not the best approach.

Most people have two arms and two legs. He has a tatoo on his right arm.

This baby submarine can carry two people to depths of 500 metres.

The MDC (Movement for Democratic Change) said it would bring about improvements in the lives of ordinary people in Zimbabwe.

per cent (%)

Inflation increased to 5 per cent (%) last year.

period

He was absent for a period of three weeks.

The period from June to August is a very busy time.

Her period was overdue.

The nineteenth century was a very turbulent period in British history.

person

He is a person of integrity.

She was acting like a very upset person but I

place

This is the place to be.

point

What is the point of doing that?

What is your point of view?

police

The police took action to reduce crime.

The protesters could not cross the police line.

The police arrested the man and accused him of murder.

After the terrorist attack, there was a lot of police activity at the airport.

The police became suspicious of his association with known terrorists and they brought him in for questioning.

The police force hopes to recruit women trainees.

After the fight, the police charged the suspect with assault.

policy

It is our policy to look after all our customers.

The committee members were in agreement about the new policy proposals.

power

Electric power is used for lighting, cooking and heating.

Political power corrupts many leaders.

problem

I have a problem with my car.

question

It’s a question of common sense.

I asked a question and he gave me an answer.

rate

What rate do you charge?

reason

He asked for the reason I was late.

Logic and reason can solve many problems but not all.

report

I was shocked by the report on global warming.

Jane’s school report was excellent.

I hope the report is on the agenda of the committee meeting.

result

The result of his negligence was severe injury.

What was the result of the test?

right

He lost his right hand in an industrial accident.

She is right to complain about the poor working conditions.

We have the right to vote.

Most people have two arms and two legs. He has a tatoo on his right arm.

The right to bear arms is enshrined in the US constitution. Firearms are dangerous.

Wait a moment! This is not the right moment to go away. At moments like this, we need to be careful.

road

Hard work is the road to success.

The road was wide enough for the car to overtake.

room

It looks so crowded; is there any room (space) to sit down?

This room is used for storing boxes.

The hotel offered us a room with a double bed or two single beds.

school

The alterations to the school rules were among many proposed changes.

My school class is learning English. .

Jane’s school report was excellent.

The school of fish swam away.

He liked the school teacher because she was knowledgeable and entertaining.

The school year has three terms or trimesters.

I like my new school – it’s a friendly but hard-working environment.

She wrote an interesting article for the school magazine.

service

What time does the bus service start?

The religious service began at 10:00.

The service is very fast in this restaurant.

The board of directors ordered all employees to be more efficient and give better service to customers.

side

The other side of the moon.

This side of summer.

This side of the road.

A side of beef.

society
state

The house was in a poor state (condition).

study

Conscientious study (process of learning) is the key to examination success.

The professor published his study of AIDS.

Psychologists study human behaviour and make associations between stimuli and responses.

system

The computer system failed to work properly.

term

The criminal was sentenced to a term of 10 years in jail.

What does the scientific term ‘relativity’ mean?

thing

What is this thing lying on the floor?

time

What time does the bus service start?

What time is it?

The old man was born a very long time ago.

use

What use are tea leaves if you have no hot water?

You can use my car to drive to town.

The FBI use secret agents to smash drugs cartels.

view

The view from Cape Town

war

The war on poverty is urgent.

There is a war of words between the politicians.

The United Nations Security Council condemned the act of war and called for a ceasefire.

water

There is a shortage of water in the desert.

She drinks two litres of water every day.

The laboratory analysis showed that the water was dangerously polluted.

On the basis of 5 litres per person, he calculated the group would need 50 litres of water per day.

way

I enjoy this way (method) of learning.

Which way (direction) is it to the city centre?

week
woman

She was the first woman to be become president.

The old woman was in need of care due to her illness.

word

The word ‘book’ can be used as a noun, as an adjective and as a verb.

They got word of his death.

I found the word in the dictionary.

The word data was originally the plural of datum.

Nowadays, the word data is generally used as an uncountable (mass) noun.

work

I work in an office building.

Hard work is the road to success.

The computer system failed to work properly.

I enjoy my work as a teacher.

Now that the boss is back, we had better work faster.

I have to work the night shift on alternate weeks.

My aim in life is to work hard and to play hard.

What percentage of students work hard for their examinations?

Which department do you work in?

world

She loves the world of art and literature.

He flew around the world in 3 days.

year

The school year has three terms or trimesters.

Last year I went to Spain.

A year has 12 months.

We pay our taxes year after year.

Top 250 nouns

These lists show you which words are used most often. They give you examples of their correct use in phrases or sentences. Note that some words may be used as noun, verb, adjective etc. For definitions and more uses and different meanings of these words you should refer to a good online dictionary or printed book dictionary of English.

account
act

That film star can act brilliantly.

He was coughing so badly he had to leave the theatre during act three.

The United Nations Security Council condemned the act of war and called for a ceasefire.

action

The police took action to reduce crime.

activity

After the terrorist attack, there was a lot of police activity at the airport.

This learning activity should help you to understand how to calculate the area of a circle.

I cannot see any benefit in allowing this dangerous activity to take place.

age

What age are you? Only people aged 18 and over are allowed in this club.

agreement

The committee members were in agreement about the new policy proposals.

The football club signed an agreement with the city council.

Your agreement is vital. Without it, the plans will not be approved.

air

All animals and plants depend on oxygen usually from the air around them.

Air is about 79% nitrogen and 20% oxygen; the rest is other gases including air pollution.

amount

No amount of pressure will cause me to agree to your proposal.

application

The pharmacist said that daily application of the skin cream was necessary.

approach

His approach to the task is to be patient and persuasive; trying to bully people is not the best approach.

If you approach the airport from the south, you will see a large car park.

The scientific approach is dispassionate and rational.

area

The area of a circle is the radius squared multiplied by pi.

This learning activity should help you to understand how to calculate the area of a circle.

arm
art

She loves the world of art and literature.

The art gallery has a fine collection of paintings and statues from all over the world.

authority

The Health Authority gives money to the hospitals.

award

The soldier won a military award for bravery.

He asked the court to award the plaintiff $50000 for the serious injuries he has suffered.

This is the highest academic award that the university can offer.

back

He injured his back in a sports accident.

The two students sat at the back of the class hoping that the teacher would ignore them.

bank

She went to the bank to deposit some cheques and withdraw some cash.

bed

They stayed in bed and breakfast accommodation because it was comfortable and cheap.

The hotel offered us a room with a double bed or two single beds.

bit

That ancient college has a royal charter and coat of arms – a bit like a logo, really!

board

The board of directors ordered all employees to be more efficient and give better service to customers.

body

Her body is healthy but her brain is damaged.

Human communication is affected by body language and tone of voice as well as the actual words spoken.

book

I read the book from cover to cover.

The film is not a patch on the book (colloquial; not as good as).

boy

The boy and his sister played together in the garden.

The boy stood on the burning deck, complaining of the heat. So he stood on his hands and tried to cool his feet.

They have two children – a boy and a girl.

building
business

The abolition of restrictions encourages business expansion.

What business is it of yours?

There was a conflict of interest between his business investments and his job as minister.

Money laundering is used to transfer money from drugs, smuggling and other crimes into legitimate business accounts.

She has a good reputation as a business leader.

His business affairs are kept separate from his political position.

The business students argued about the difference in meaning between

Her university degree is in Business Administration.

car

He was injured in a car accident.

My car has broken down so I will have to go by bus.

New car drivers must learn to operate the controls with skill.

The car repair job took 3 days.

The road was wide enough for the car to overtake.

You can use my car to drive to town.

If you approach the airport from the south, you will see a large car park.

The car factory has installed a new assembly line.

I need to insure my car against fire, theft and collision damage risks.

care

The old woman was in need of care due to her illness.

The children played happily without a care in the world.

He needs hospital care to recover from the suregery.

case

I’ll wait for you in case you are late.

You travel light; you have only one case and I have several bags.

He always carried his credit card in case of emergency.

centre

The sun is the centre of our universe.

century

The nineteenth century was a very turbulent period in British history.

Robertson scored his first century in yesterday

chance

When you fly there is a chance that the airline will lose your bags at the airport.

Football is a game of skill but there is still an element of chance that produces surprise results.

change

She wished for a change in the weather.

He brought a change of clothes.

I didn’t have any small change so gave him paper money.

My decision is final; you will not persuade me to change my opinion.

chapter

When he returned from the war, he started a new chapter in his life.

The Moseley Chapter of the association meets every Friday evening.

child

He was convicted of child abuse.

My child is sick. Her children are 6 and 8 years old.

church

The Catholic Church is a very large organization with hundreds of millions of believers.

This church was built 500 years ago but is still used for worship today.

city

Mr Khan works in a city office.

Which way (direction) is it to the city centre?

The football club signed an agreement with the city council.

The baby was born at 03:30 in the city hospital.

He said that Vancouver is the best city bar none. (

London is the capital city of England.

Land is very expensive – especially in city centres and crowded countries.

class

My school class is learning English. .

High class restaurants are usually expensive.

The two students sat at the back of the class hoping that the teacher would ignore them.

club

The student joined a sports club and a musical society.

The football club signed an agreement with the city council.

Manchester United football club has bought a new player – he cost over a million Euro.

committee

The committee members were in agreement about the new policy proposals.

I hope the report is on the agenda of the committee meeting.

community

There is a public party tonight in the community hall.

company

The accountant produced the company accounts for the tax inspector.

Don’t keep company with bad people.

The company went into administration and eventually closed down.

The labour union leaders and the company management reached a pay deal and averted a strike.

The company has advertised a new post – Chief Accounting Officer.

computer

Searching and sorting are very demanding computer applications.

The computer system failed to work properly.

condition
contract

They met to sign the contract of cooperation between the parties.

control

The government has no control over the weather.

cost

The cost of raw materials has increased by 12% since last year.

His drunken driving cost him his life.

Manchester United football club has bought a new player – he cost over a million Euro.

council

The local council looks after street cleaning.

She was elected to the Council of Ministers.

The United Nations Security Council condemned the act of war and called for a ceasefire.

They applied to the local council for planning approval to build a new office block.

country

We visited a country park.

France is a large country in Europe.

It is your duty to be loyal to your country and be a good citizen.

course

The course of history is complex and erratic.

The race course was very crowded with spectators.

court

The court of King Rascali was corrupt.

The judge sits in court and hears criminal cases.

The court is very busy – the judge has to hear several cases this week.

The lawyer submitted a detailed argument to the court claiming that the defendant had an alibi.

He asked the court to award the plaintiff $50000 for the serious injuries he has suffered.

The decison of the district court was overturned by the higher court of appeal.

data

The word data was originally the plural of datum.

Nowadays, the word data is generally used as an uncountable (mass) noun.

The lack of data makes it difficult to decide.

The Data Protection Officer refused to allow disclosure of private information.

date

What date is it today?

day

The day after tomorrow is Thursday.

The unnecessary movement of vehicles every day is a major cause of pollution.

death
decision

My decision is final; you will not persuade me to change my opinion.

department

Which department do you work in?

detail

Attention to detail is vital in forensic science.

development

Educational development is very important for the nation.

Foreign governments give development aid to poorer countries.

The Expressionist movement was an important stage in the development of modern art.

difference

The business students argued about the difference in meaning between

director

She is the director responsible for the new department.

door

Please close the door when you go out.

education
effect

What effect will this have on my salary?

end

At the end of the day.

The far end of the road.

At the end of the meeting, there was a collection to raise money for the project.

event
evidence
example

He tries to be a role model and set a good example to all the young people.

experience

He has three years job experience in this industry.

eye

He has an eye for fine art.

Keep an eye on the children.

My left eye is hurting.

face

The face of modern Britain.

He washed his face and brushed his hair.

fact

Is this fact or fiction?

The fact is, I overslept.

family

This family of plants is nearing extinction.

My family consists of my mother, my father and me.

The family is on benefit; they depend on welfare benefits because there are so few jobs available.

father

My family consists of my mother, my father and me.

My mother and father have two children: a daughter and a son.

He became lord of the manor when his father died.

field

The farmer planted rice in his field and hopes to harvest it in a few months

Many students find physics to be a difficult field of study.

The football field was so muddy the team could not play in their usual style.

figure

Look at the map in figure 8.

firm

The firm will enter a new market next year.

The firm needed to raise more capital to finance new investment in export markets.

His firm had great difficulty in obtaining finance to buy the expensive new machine.

food

The food shortages led to civil unrest.

foot

In Imperial measurements, the foot is a unit of length; a metric metre is about three feet.

force

This experiment demonstrates the force fields around a magnet.

You will need a lot of force to break down that security door.

The police force hopes to recruit women trainees.

The force of Earth

form

The footballer was in good form and scored two goals.

Fill in the form using a ballpoint pen.

friend

A friend in need is a friend indeed.

My friend John lives nearby.

game

Football is a game of skill but there is still an element of chance that produces surprise results.

girl

This girl is going to be a star. Her singing voice is amazing!

government

The government has no control over the weather.

The government increase security controls due to the bomb scare.

The government is in charge of the army, education, health and trade.

He tried to gain an unfair advantage by bribing the government official.

ground

The football ground was very crowded with supporters of both teams.

I felt a movement in the ground and feared that it was an earthquake.

group

A group of students were chatting.

On the basis of 5 litres per person, he calculated the group would need 50 litres of water per day.

hand

He lost his right hand in an industrial accident.

head

They were at the head of the race.

She is the head of marketing.

health

The Health Authority gives money to the hospitals.

The government is in charge of the army, education, health and trade.

history

The course of history is complex and erratic.

home

He lives at home with his parents.

England was the home of the industrial revolution.

hospital

He needs hospital care to recover from the suregery.

The accident victim was treated by a hospital doctor and nurses.

hour

An hour has 60 minutes.

house

My house is on this street.

Part of the house fell down.

The house was in a poor state (condition).

One of the rooms in his house is used as a study.

The British House of Lords is unelected and some say undemocratic – but it works quite well most of the time.

hundred

One hundred metres is often written as 100m.

idea

He has no idea about cooking.

I have an idea for a new book.

industry
information

He gave false information to the police.

interest

He paid 12% interest on his loan.

Did he show any interest in her painting?

There was a conflict of interest between his business investments and his job as minister.

He earned 8% interest on the money in his savings account.

issue

Government issue clothing for soldiers is usually very strong and hardwearing.

job

Have you posted your job application?

He has three years job experience in this industry.

There was a conflict of interest between his business investments and his job as minister.

It’s quite a job to climb that steep hill.

My job is well-paid and I I hope for another salary increase soon.

The car repair job took 3 days.

kind

What kind of fruit is this?

She is very kind and generous to everyone.

king

The court of King Rascali was corrupt.

He played the part of King Lear in the play.

land

I bought some land so that I can build a new house.

language

Human communication is affected by body language and tone of voice as well as the actual words spoken.

law

The new law was passed in parliament and enforced by the courts.

The law of nature says that all living things must eventually die.

leader
letter

The applicant received his letter of acceptance from the university.

I wrote the letter and then put it in the post today so you should receive it by tomorrow.

level

The builder used a spirit-level to check whether the wall was level and true.

life

My aim in life is to work hard and to play hard.

light
line

The line of shoppers grew longer and longer.

lord

He became lord of the manor when his father died.

lot

There is a lot of crime in this area.

A lot of people were at the market.

After the terrorist attack, there was a lot of police activity at the airport.

She works in administration and has to do a lot of paperwork.

You will need a lot of force to break down that security door.

man

This man works hard in the factory all day.

The police arrested the man and accused him of murder.

The old man was born a very long time ago.

If a dog bites a man, that is not news but if a man bites a dog, the newspapers will be interested.

management

The labour union leaders and the company management reached a pay deal and averted a strike.

manager

She is manager of the advice centre.

market

The firm will enter a new market next year.

material

She bought some material to make a new dress.

Building material is very expensive but usually lasts a long time.

matter
meeting

The meeting discussed every item on the agenda.

The chairman called the meeting to order so that they could begin formal discussions.

member

Are you a member of this club?

She is a respected member of the community.

method
million

Manchester United football club has bought a new player – he cost over a million Euro.

mind

She has a brilliant mind – extremely intelligent and well-educated.

Do you mind if I sit here? No, I don

minister

The minister was accountable to parliament.

He was a minister in the Blair government.

She trained as minister of religion.

Mr Trasker is the Minister of Defence in the Social Democratic government.

minute

The forensic scientist found minute particles on his clothing. They were so tiny you could not see them with the naked eye.

model

The model aircraft is operated by radio control.

He tries to be a role model and set a good example to all the young people.

moment

Wait a moment! This is not the right moment to go away. At moments like this, we need to be careful.

money

The Health Authority gives money to the hospitals.

Do you have any money to hand?

I have no money so I cannot buy a new car.

Money laundering is used to transfer money from drugs, smuggling and other crimes into legitimate business accounts.

He earned 8% interest on the money in his savings account.

OXFAM and other charities launched an appeal to raise money for poor people.

At the end of the meeting, there was a collection to raise money for the project.

month

February is the only calendar month with 28 days.

morning

In the morning I go to school, in the afternoon I play sport and in the evening I read books.

mother

The mother fed her children.

The mother ship was escorted into harbour.

Her choice of clothes surprised her mother. Her mother wanted her to choose different clothes.

My mother and father have two children: a daughter and a son.

movement

I felt a movement in the ground and feared that it was an earthquake.

The unnecessary movement of vehicles every day is a major cause of pollution.

The Expressionist movement was an important stage in the development of modern art.

Mr
Mrs
name

My name is Peter.

What’s the name of your hotel?

Can you name the 27 countries of the European Union?

I wrote his name and address in my notebook.

nature

The law of nature says that all living things must eventually die.

need

A friend in need is a friend indeed.

I need a new part for my car.

The old woman was in need of care due to her illness.

On the basis of 5 litres per person, he calculated the group would need 50 litres of water per day.

We need to budget for further expansion and increased advetising expenditure.

Students need careful advice about making wise career choices.

You will need a lot of force to break down that security door.

Wait a moment! This is not the right moment to go away. At moments like this, we need to be careful.

I need to insure my car against fire, theft and collision damage risks.

night

I have to work the night shift on alternate weeks.

north

The division of Korea into north and south many years ago still has serious consequences today.

number

This number is greater than ten.

office

I work in an office building.

The office of President is extremely powerful.

I asked at the theatre box office but they said that no seats were available.

They applied to the local council for planning approval to build a new office block.

officer

The Data Protection Officer refused to allow disclosure of private information.

operation

She is revcovering from an operation in hospital.

The operation of this laboratory equipment is quite difficult.

opportunity
order

The chairman called the meeting to order so that they could begin formal discussions.

other

Money laundering is used to transfer money from drugs, smuggling and other crimes into legitimate business accounts.

The other side of the moon.

Air is about 79% nitrogen and 20% oxygen; the rest is other gases including air pollution.

OXFAM and other charities launched an appeal to raise money for poor people.

paper

I didn’t have any small change so gave him paper money.

You should draw the picture on very thick paper or card.

parent
part

I need a new part for my car.

He played the part of King Lear in the play.

I take part in sports.

Google Earth lets you zoom in on photographs of any part of the world.

party

It was no accident that they left the party at the same time.

We had a birthday party on Friday.

The Labour Party candidate was successful in the election.

There is a public party tonight in the community hall.

patient

His approach to the task is to be patient and persuasive; trying to bully people is not the best approach.

people

Some English people find strong Scottish accents difficult to understand.

With the arrival of foreign soldiers, the people were anxious.

Other people were present.

Some people eat pork and some don’t.

A lot of people were at the market.

What age are you? Only people aged 18 and over are allowed in this club.

His approach to the task is to be patient and persuasive; trying to bully people is not the best approach.

Most people have two arms and two legs. He has a tatoo on his right arm.

This baby submarine can carry two people to depths of 500 metres.

The MDC (Movement for Democratic Change) said it would bring about improvements in the lives of ordinary people in Zimbabwe.

per cent (%)

Inflation increased to 5 per cent (%) last year.

period

He was absent for a period of three weeks.

The period from June to August is a very busy time.

Her period was overdue.

The nineteenth century was a very turbulent period in British history.

person

He is a person of integrity.

She was acting like a very upset person but I

picture

You should draw the picture on very thick paper or card.

place

This is the place to be.

plan

We asked the architect to draw a plan of the proposed new house.

When do you plan to get married?

point

What is the point of doing that?

What is your point of view?

police

The police took action to reduce crime.

The protesters could not cross the police line.

The police arrested the man and accused him of murder.

After the terrorist attack, there was a lot of police activity at the airport.

The police became suspicious of his association with known terrorists and they brought him in for questioning.

The police force hopes to recruit women trainees.

After the fight, the police charged the suspect with assault.

policy

It is our policy to look after all our customers.

The committee members were in agreement about the new policy proposals.

position
pound
power

Electric power is used for lighting, cooking and heating.

Political power corrupts many leaders.

practice
president

The office of President is extremely powerful.

The soldiers stood to attention and saluted when the president drove past.

price

The price of freedom is obedience to the law.

The price of bread has increased greatly.

We will not refund the ticket price under any circumstances.

problem

I have a problem with my car.

process
product
production

Component shortages delayed production of the new cars.

programme
project

The New Deal was a major project aimed at creating jobs and reducing poverty in America.

property
quality
question

It’s a question of common sense.

I asked a question and he gave me an answer.

range
rate

What rate do you charge?

reason

He asked for the reason I was late.

Logic and reason can solve many problems but not all.

record
relationship
report

I was shocked by the report on global warming.

Jane’s school report was excellent.

I hope the report is on the agenda of the committee meeting.

research

He spent five years at the university doing research for a doctor of philosophy degree.

result

The result of his negligence was severe injury.

What was the result of the test?

right

He lost his right hand in an industrial accident.

She is right to complain about the poor working conditions.

We have the right to vote.

Most people have two arms and two legs. He has a tatoo on his right arm.

The right to bear arms is enshrined in the US constitution. Firearms are dangerous.

Wait a moment! This is not the right moment to go away. At moments like this, we need to be careful.

road

Hard work is the road to success.

The road was wide enough for the car to overtake.

role

He tries to be a role model and set a good example to all the young people.

room

It looks so crowded; is there any room (space) to sit down?

This room is used for storing boxes.

The hotel offered us a room with a double bed or two single beds.

rule
scheme
school

The alterations to the school rules were among many proposed changes.

My school class is learning English. .

Jane’s school report was excellent.

The school of fish swam away.

He liked the school teacher because she was knowledgeable and entertaining.

The school year has three terms or trimesters.

I like my new school – it’s a friendly but hard-working environment.

She wrote an interesting article for the school magazine.

Secretary
section
security

The government increase security controls due to the bomb scare.

The United Nations Security Council condemned the act of war and called for a ceasefire.

President Obama will address the United Nations Security Council.

You will need a lot of force to break down that security door.

sense
service

What time does the bus service start?

The religious service began at 10:00.

The service is very fast in this restaurant.

The board of directors ordered all employees to be more efficient and give better service to customers.

share
side

The other side of the moon.

This side of summer.

This side of the road.

A side of beef.

sir
situation
society
son
sort
south

The division of Korea into north and south many years ago still has serious consequences today.

staff
stage

The Expressionist movement was an important stage in the development of modern art.

state

The house was in a poor state (condition).

story
street

The local council looks after street cleaning.

structure
student

The student joined a sports club and a musical society.

study

Conscientious study (process of learning) is the key to examination success.

The professor published his study of AIDS.

Psychologists study human behaviour and make associations between stimuli and responses.

subject
support
system

The computer system failed to work properly.

table
tax

The accountant produced the company accounts for the tax inspector.

teacher

He liked the school teacher because she was knowledgeable and entertaining.

The two students sat at the back of the class hoping that the teacher would ignore them.

The teacher told the students to pay attention to the explanations.

The mathematics teacher wrote the equation on the board.

The science teacher explained the danger of acid being spilled in the laboratory.

team

You hope your team will win but you can

The football field was so muddy the team could not play in their usual style.

term

The criminal was sentenced to a term of 10 years in jail.

What does the scientific term ‘relativity’ mean?

test
theory
thing

What is this thing lying on the floor?

time

What time does the bus service start?

What time is it?

The old man was born a very long time ago.

town

Our town is too small to be a city.

The hotel is in the town centre.

trade
training
type
union

The labour union leaders and the company management reached a pay deal and averted a strike.

unit

In Imperial measurements, the foot is a unit of length; a metric metre is about three feet.

university

This is the highest academic award that the university can offer.

He spent five years at the university doing research for a doctor of philosophy degree.

Her university degree is in Business Administration.

use

What use are tea leaves if you have no hot water?

You can use my car to drive to town.

The FBI use secret agents to smash drugs cartels.

value

What is the value of this gold chain?

view

The view from Cape Town

voice

Human communication is affected by body language and tone of voice as well as the actual words spoken.

This girl is going to be a star. Her singing voice is amazing!

wall

The builder used a spirit-level to check whether the wall was level and true.

war

The war on poverty is urgent.

There is a war of words between the politicians.

The United Nations Security Council condemned the act of war and called for a ceasefire.

water

There is a shortage of water in the desert.

She drinks two litres of water every day.

The laboratory analysis showed that the water was dangerously polluted.

On the basis of 5 litres per person, he calculated the group would need 50 litres of water per day.

way

I enjoy this way (method) of learning.

Which way (direction) is it to the city centre?

week
wife
window
woman

She was the first woman to be become president.

The old woman was in need of care due to her illness.

word

The word ‘book’ can be used as a noun, as an adjective and as a verb.

They got word of his death.

I found the word in the dictionary.

The word data was originally the plural of datum.

Nowadays, the word data is generally used as an uncountable (mass) noun.

work

I work in an office building.

Hard work is the road to success.

The computer system failed to work properly.

I enjoy my work as a teacher.

Now that the boss is back, we had better work faster.

I have to work the night shift on alternate weeks.

My aim in life is to work hard and to play hard.

What percentage of students work hard for their examinations?

Which department do you work in?

worker
world

She loves the world of art and literature.

He flew around the world in 3 days.

year

The school year has three terms or trimesters.

Last year I went to Spain.

A year has 12 months.

We pay our taxes year after year.

Thematic teaching

Sometimes an integrated approach that includes several different aspects of language learning set around a common theme is a refreshing and motivating approach for both the TESOL teacher and the student of English.

The ‘Thematic Learning’ section in the Student Centre provides a series of reading passages and language exercises around specified themes.

In this ‘Thematic Teaching’ section we present teaching notes for the TESOL teacher that are based on those reading passages and language exercises.

The level of the materials and suggested activities varies and teachers will need to decide which passages are at the right level for their class. Similarly, the way that specific activities are used by the teacher will be determined by the level of the class.

The first theme is ‘chocolate’, its origins, its manufacturers, the socially-oriented employment policies of some famous chocolate makers like Cadbury, the historical links between chocolate-trading and slavery, and the more recent emergence of the ‘Fair Trade’ organization which aims to give producers in developing countries better prices for high quality coffee beans as part of a campaign for sustainable development.

Over time, further materials will be added so that eventually there will be a wide collection of historical material and up-to-date resources that can be used with students.

The texts themselves and students’ learning activities and exercises are presented in ‘Thematic learning’ in the student section together with pictures and other images related to the theme.

The first of this series of teachers’ notes on thematic topics is:

Cadbury and Chocolate

Teaching Notes on ‘Bloody men’ by Wendy Cope

Poems provide excellent practice, lead to a significant amount of discussion, and can significantly improve the students speaking and reading skills. They are also excellent in helping to reinforce good intonation patterns and ensure that word stress is correctly placed.

This poem is one that can be used very effectively with adults, and of course it is particularly suitable for a class that of women!

The word bloody is generally a very mild expletive these days and although children might have got told off for using it in the past, today parents are probably just pleased that it isn’t anything worse. In other words, since it is something that learners might hear (at least in an English-speaking country), it’s a word that is worth making them aware of. Students are often confused about the level and power of expletives and so it may be helpful to make them aware that this one is not too strong in many cases.

There are a range of possible steps that you can follow with a poem. Here are a few suggestions with this poem.

  1. The title of a poem is often a good starting point but in this case it may be better to come back to it at a later point. After looking at the poem itself, the students will be able to explain the title.
  2. Ask the students about their own experiences of waiting for bus in the UK. Does this differ from waiting for buses in their home country?
  3. What are the differences between travelling by bus in the UK and in their home countries?
  4. The fact that in the UK there are long gaps followed by several buses is a curiosity much remarked upon! Ask the students whether this also happens in their home country. If not, why not?
  5. Give them the first verse with the last word of line 4 deleted. Tell them that it rhymes with year. Can they guess what the missing word is?
  6. Read the first verse aloud to the students. Ask them about the comparison between men and buses.
  7. Repeat the process with verse two, again removing the last word of the 4th line. Can they guess what it is?
  8. Read the second verse aloud. Ask them about the meaning of flashing, indicators, destination in terms of buses and teach words as necessary.
  9. Ask them about the ‘real’ meaning in the poem of flashing their indicators, offering you a ride, the destination in terms of men.
  10. Repeat the same steps for the 3rd verse. Can they guess the final word of the poem?
  11. Make sure they understand the expressions turning back and gaze.
  12. With the class, consider the meaning of jump off (in terms of the poem). Also what do the words cars, taxis, lorries refer to?
  13. Teach the word metaphor (if the students don’t already know it) and establish that this is essentially a metaphorical poem relating about dating men.
  14. This is a simple but very clever poem that moves from the obvious to the serious to the common dilemma of women (You haven’t much time to decide) to a final verse that touches on personal grief (the minutes, the hours, the days). With some classes it would be interesting to see if they could write a 4th verse!
  15. It would be interesting to then go on and look at another poem based on metaphor and compare the images in that one with this poem by Wendy Cope.
  16. One interesting activity with a short poem is to start by giving it to the class in jumbled order. You would need to tell them the form of the poem (the number of lines per verse / the position of rhyming words). This is an activity that many students really enjoy and with the right poem it can be an excellent starting point.

Bloody men by Wendy Cope

Bloody men are like bloody buses –
You wait for about a year
And as soon as one approaches your stop
Two or three others appear.

You look at them flashing their indicators,
Offering you a ride.
You’re trying to read the destination,
You haven’t much time to decide.

If you make a mistake, there is no turning back.
Jump off, and you’ll stand there and gaze
While the cars and the taxis and lorries go by
And the minutes, the hours, the days.

Thematic teaching: Cadbury and Chocolate

These pages contain teaching materials and suggested classroom activities on the theme of the Cadbury family and chocolate at various levels of difficulty.

The teachers’ notes are provided in this this section and the related short passages and English exercises are in the ‘Thematic learning: Chocolate‘ pages in the student section.

Cadbury and Chocolate

  • Possible speaking activities
    • talk about favourite chocolate
    • decide if there are differences in styles of chocolate around the world
    • discuss decisions taken by the Cadburys
    • discuss issue of child labour in the past and today
    • discuss fair trade issues
    • invite a Quaker to class for talk/interview/ discussion
  • Possible listening activities
    • listen to taped passage and replace missing words in text
    • listen to dialogues for opinions
    • listen and re-order events
  • Possible reading activities:
    • discuss title of passage
    • predict content of passage from title
    • list 5 questions that the reader would like answered in the text
    • teach examples of important new vocabulary
    • skim for general focus of the text
    • scan for specific information
    • match words and explanations
    • find similes
    • look for cohesive devices in text (linking words/expressions)
    • re-order sentences
    • re-order paragraphs
    • look for examples of metaphor
    • look for adj + noun expressions (humble beginnings/confectionary shop, marketing campaign/leading trader/hard times etc) etc)
    • consider use of tenses
  • Possible writing activities
    • provide correct verb form
    • re-write a section of text from main points
    • re-order sentences
    • re-order paragraphs
    • write more freely – e.g. why I like/don’t like chocolate
    • write to Cadburys or another company re their trading policies
    • send emails to companies re their trading policies
    • sentence completion
    • sentence linking
  • General activities
    • visit Cadbury World in Birmingham, UK or their website
    • visit Cadbury Hall or research information about it
    • find Bridge Street on a map and see what it’s like today
    • look at other web sites related to Cadburys
    • investigate Quaker links
    • go to a Quaker meeting
    • if possible, interview people living in Bournville today
    • discuss enlightened employment policy adopted by the Cadburys
    • find out more information on Cadbury-Schweppes today
    • if possible, take photographs of Bournville and write descriptions

Presentations in the classroom

Students on many types of courses need to develop presentation skills so that they can confidently deliver briefings to a group audience. For some students, having presntational skills is vital to the course they are undertaking. For many, the presentation is a means to an end – a way of demonstrating their understanding of a topic in an interesting way that involves other students. For all students, the ability to present effectively shows that they can integrate a widde range of communication skills.

TESOL teachers are often called upon to provide organized activities so that student can develop their confidence in speaking not just with their teacher or on a one-to-one basis, but to larger group audiences.

Effective presentations depend on a careful mix of written and spoken English and body language, cultural sensitivity, the preparation of audio-visual and other materials and the appropriate handling of questions.

These pages provide suggestions about what makes for a good presentation and provides tips on what English teachers can do to develop presentation skills in their students.

Giving presentations

The ability to give an effective presentation to a group depends on careful attention to the following:

  • the language of presentations
  • being prepared
  • having knowledge of the audience
  • demonstrating confidence
  • how to stand / body language
  • appropriate volume and tone
  • where to look while presenting / eye contact
  • use of visual aids, particularly PowerPoint
  • planning your presentation
  • introducing your presentation
  • the pace of your presentation
  • demonstrating knowledge of the topic
  • three stages for each major point: introduce – present – review
  • writing on a whiteboard
  • using a pointer or light
  • humour
  • concluding your presentation
  • taking questions.

We will now briefly look at each of these points and consider what you might include on making presentations in your programme. Remember, the main focus of this work will be practising presenting in English; however, you will also be developing their professional presentation skills at the same time. Considering, and then agreeing, the main elements that are important when presenting will, in itself, present the participants with excellent opportunities for English language practice.

Here is a list of the main characteristics of any presentation, whether one minute or 20 minutes.

The language of presentations

The presenters need to use appropriate language for presentations and so this has to be practised with the trainer initially.

Be prepared

The presenter needs to go into the presentation very well prepared. There is no value in going in without making very sure that all the information needed is at the finger tips of the presenter. Where business is concerned, this may well require the presenter to have a lot of financial detail, or perhaps the detailed outline of an advertising campaign ready to present in a very clear, concise way. It is important that all the pages and figures and slides needed are clearly numbered, or labelled in some other way, and can be picked out at the right moment.

Know your audience

It is important that the presenter is very clear about the audience so that s/he does not tell them what they already know or, alternatively, does not present at a level that is too advanced for the audience. Before any presentation, the presenter needs to ask him/herself, What do they already know? What do they need to know? The approach taken will vary significantly, depending on the audience. For example, a marketing manager is likely to approach his topic in different ways when presenting to a) fellow marketing managers and b) junior marketing staff.

Be confident

Presenting with confidence is very important, and particularly so with business people. They often tend to be quite competitive in some ways and it is important that any presentation that they do is done with style and confidence. One helpful tip here is to be absolutely sure about the presentation steps, and especially the first minute. This is often the most nerve-wracking time for people unfamiliar with presenting and so it is best to be absolutely sure what they are going to do and say in the first few minutes. In addition, it is very helpful to have a glass of water nearby in case the presenter’s mouth is dry, or simply for a slight pause. The speaker needs to reassure themselves that they have the right to be giving that particular presentation because they have something quite specific to say (that other people want to listen to) and they also have recognised skills in that particular area.

Be aware of how you are standing

Some presenters may feel confident, but their body language may demonstrate tension. Some presenters set up regular body movements, for example, stepping backwards and forwards, or rocking backwards and forwards as they speak. This can be very disconcerting for listeners. All presenters need to think carefully about how they are standing and to monitor their movements all the time. Standing in front or a lectern or a table can be helpful.

Use appropriate volume and tone

The presenter’s voice should be neither too loud nor too soft. The speaker should not sound patronising, aggressive or hesitant.

The pace of the presentation is very important; less experienced presenters or more nervous presenters will invariably speak too quickly or sometimes too slowly. Presenters need to speak at a measured pace with a clear voice so that everyone can hear what they are saying and they also have the time to absorb new information. Going too fast is a classic mistake so it is important to encourage your participants to take things at a more measured pace.

Look at the audience – make eye contact

Some presenters are unsure where to look and may end up presenting to one of the lamp shades on the ceiling. A better approach is to look directly at different members of the audience, one at a time. The presenter should not keep their attention focused on one particular individual, or on one side of the audience. Directing the presentation to one side of the room is a common mistake and it can be quite disconcerting for the audience. The presentation needs to be directed to the whole audience, not just a few.

Use visual aids and, perhaps, PowerPoint

As part of your English training course, you may find that your participants need to learn how to use a range of different audio-visual aids and this will also give you an excellent chance to practise listening skills. One of the most useful presentation aids is PowerPoint and your participants may wish to become more familiar with this programme, so be prepared.

This needs to be done with particular care and is likely to provide you (as the trainer) with opportunities to provide listening activities using some commercially prepared tapes where experienced presenters talk about what they do and how they do it. A range of different activities can be carried out using these tapes including listing, ordering, blank-filling, true/false questions, half-sentence linking, sentence completion and general discussion.

Introducing the presentation clearly

The start of the presentation is very important and one element of this is telling the audience precisely what they are going to be listening to. This may sound simple, but it is important to spell out the main steps of the presentation.

In this presentation, I would like to outline a new advertising campaign and provide five reasons why I believe it will benefit our company. I will divide the presentation into three sections. Section 1 will …….. .

Demonstrate knowledge of the topic

All presenters need to be able to demonstrate that they have a particular message that they are putting across to the audience and that they are familiar with the general area they are talking about. This can be demonstrated in a number of ways, including by making reference to others in that particular field, to books written on the subject or to other specific programmes, policies or even advertising campaigns. Demonstrating a clear understanding of the area will give the audience greater confidence in what the speaker is saying because they will be aware that he or she is knowledgeable, and what he or she is saying is worth listening to.

Three stages for each major point: introduce – present – review

The presenter is likely to have divided the talk into several different sections and it is vital that each one of these is clearly signalled as the presentation progresses. This can be done with clear ‘signposts’ that indicate where the presentation is going. For example, at several points, it is good practice for the presenter to say something equivalent to: In the next section, we are going to consider X, Y and Z …. . (The presenter does so.) We have now considered X, Y and Z……. and the reasons why ….. . In the next section, I would like to move on to look at N, O and P ….. (and then go on to do it.) In other words, a) tell them what you’re going to tell them; b) then tell them; c) then tell them what you’ve told them!

Use the whiteboard

The presenter may not need a whiteboard but if s/he does, it is important that they are very clear about how to write points clearly on the board and how to arrange the various elements on the board. It is not good practice to end up the presentation with words scrawled at random around the board. The presenter needs to have a clear vision in his/her mind about what the board is going to look like at the end of the session and needs to write legibly so that every point is easy to read. If anything needs to be rubbed out it should be done so completely and not in a casual or careless way.

Ideally, divide the board into three sections in your mind (or even with lines down the board) and then place important points on the board as appropriate. For example, one column might be for essential information that you want them to keep; another column might be for points made by the participants; another column might be for points that can be rubbed out quickly.

It is worth noting that black markers always leave a whiteboard messy and dirty because they leave behind a lot of residue so it is best to use colours like blue, green and red.

Use a pointer or light where appropriate

A presenter may need to use either a wooden pointer or a laser pointer, and it useful to practise doing this in way that picks out important points. The issue here, of course, is that the presenter needs to learn to make his or her points very clearly in English and then reinforce them with the pointer.

Use humour

Humour can be somewhat dangerous, especially when people from different countries are in your class, because people have very different views about what is amusing and what is appropriate. However, it is sometimes useful to bring this into a presentation and you will find that considering what type of humour is appropriate will also make a very interesting topic to discuss with your participants.

End the presentation in an efficient way

Concluding the presentation is as important as how the presenter starts the presentation. The presenter will not want just to stutter to an end so it is important that your participants learn how to end up their presentation effectively in English.

Take questions

Invariably there will be questions after a presentation and it is important for the participants’ English language skills, as well as their presenting skills, that responding in a positive way to questions can be practised in class.

Icebreaker activity – This is me

This is an excellent activity for the first day of a course because it gets the students relaxed and talking, and often laughing as well. After the normal preliminaries of the first day, this could be the first real activity. This works best with a small class of up to 10 maximum.

  1. The teacher will already have written a few sentences about themselves on an overhead or Powerpoint slide or whiteboard. Let the students see these, and tell them to read them through. Then read each sentence aloud, adding a little more detail in each case. The sentences might look something like this:
    I was born in Tanzania. My father was a doctor there. I can speak Kiswahili, French and English. I know a little Chinese. I have four children. I love swimming. I can play the guitar and sing. I have taught English for 20 years.
  2. Tell the students that some of these statements are true and some are not. Tell them to ask questions to try to find out what is true and what is not true (5-10 minutes). As they ask questions, they may guess which statements are true and which are untrue.
  3. Let them tell you which statements they think are true (and why) and which are false.
  4. Confess, and tell them which are true and which are not. Add a little more about yourself.
  5. Tell the students to write down 4/5 short sentences/statements about themselves. Some statements will be true and some untrue.
  6. Tell them to work in pairs and question each other about their statements. Their task is to try to find out what is true and what is false (10 minutes).
  7. When they have finished, ask the pairs to report back. However, each student must report on each other. They should report what they believe to be true.
  8. When a student has finished describing his/her partner, the other student can then make any factual corrections that are needed. I am not 36, I am really 26.
  9. When everyone has finished the teacher can bounce questions around the class. Who lived in Zanzibar? Whose mother was a painter?
  10. Tell the students to write a description of themselves.

Classroom activity – Partners

Before using this activity, the teacher will to take account of the age of the students and their cultural backgrounds.

Materials needed: Bring in a selection of personal ads from a newspaper by men and women seeking a partner.

  1. Ask the class what they understand by the expression lonely hearts. Discuss. Explain.
  2. Would they consider placing an ad? Why? Why not?
  3. Give out a ‘lonely hearts’ ad and let the student’s read it. Ask questions. Elicit comments.
  4. Do the same with about 5/6 other ads.
  5. Ask the students to agree on one that they find particularly interesting.
  6. Under guidance from the students, let one student draw this person on the board following instructions from the other students.
  7. Ask the students for more information about this person based on the advert and also based on their own imaginations. List these points on the board.
  8. Hand out another 5/7 ads placed by women looking for partners. Ask questions. Elicit comments.
  9. Ask the students to suggest which would be the most appropriate partner for the man.
  10. When agreed, repeat the stage where a student draws this woman on the board following the instructions of the other students.
  11. As before, ask the students for more information about this person based on the advert and also based on their own imaginations. List these points on the board.
  12. Tell the women students to write an email to a friend about a meeting she had with the man the evening before. Where did they go? What did she like about him? What did she not like about him? The man can do the same, writing about the woman.
  13. Ask the students to work in pairs and read and compare their emails. Ask some to read them aloud.
  14. Give each student a picture and/or description of a person; tell them not to let others see it. Tell them to write a personal ad for this person.
  15. Blue-tac them to a page (or two) and photocopy it so that everyone has a copy.
  16. Ask the students to match people, based on the ads. Make sure all are matched, however unlikely!
  17. Ask the students why they have matched them.
  18. Bring together the pictures/descriptions with the ads. Did they make good choices?